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World Development Indicators:
Science and technology
Research and development (R&D)
High-technology exports
Charges for the use of intellectual property
Patent applications filed
Trademark applications filed (by count)
Industrial design applications filed (by count)
full-time equivalent per million people
full-time equivalent per million people
% of GDP
$ millions
$ millions
2005-15
2005-15
2013
2005-15
2016
2016
2016
2016
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
..
..
27
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
184
3
23
14
5
866.0
6,844.0
1.0
1,040.0
3,653
89
716
14,483.0
11,972.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
514.0
1,953.0
..
..
23
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
10
..
1,776.0
1.0
8,053
546
3,579
52,208.0
14,070.0
1,016.0
565.0
..
..
559
17
4.7
..
..
113
2
2,728.0
7,336.0
31.0
855.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
47,806
800
3,372
2,291
26,314
80,792.0
49,030.0
2,821.0
4,203.0
12,031
950
1,781
2,205
236
15,209.0
8,141.0
989.0
1,181.0
..
..
482
..
..
184
..
2,801.0
9,309.0
11.0
1,096.0
..
..
16
..
0
23
210
..
..
8
185
380.0
10,318.0
3.0
61.0
..
..
1,971
..
..
..
41
299
9,322.0
3,487.0
1,284.0
92.0
..
..
39
..
38
24.3
45
159.0
1,178.0
1.0
3.0
..
..
1,001
604
4.7
28
125
543
148
4,489.0
14,324.0
202.0
185.0
16,511
3,505
3,143
949
148
..
..
..
..
..
..
10
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
733.0
..
..
187
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
..
..
0
0
1,648.0
..
89
437
93
2.6
13
8
689.0
9,238.0
24.0
1,173.0
165
2,141.0
56.0
48,622
651
5,141
4,641
25,578
130,720.0
27,989.0
3,289.0
2,750.0
..
..
120
..
..
..
..
91.0
2,677
50
166
280
11
13,632.0
3,990.0
620.0
138.0
177
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
84
..
65
1,517.0
9.0
60.0
..
..
527
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
57,797
23,974
13.0
4,479
9,700
4,277
32,687
83,504.0
71,630.0
797.0
5,049.0
8
0
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,158
603
7.0
43
1,575
443
2,831
28,903.0
14,061.0
43.0
359.0
..
401,435
1,161
23,980
968,252
133,612
2,658,732.0
169,392.0
551,481.0
17,578.0
..
422
12.1
239
11,973
28,916.0
47,511.0
1,335.0
3,847.0
..
..
3
62
1,833.0
11,307.0
21.0
228.0
..
4,456
58
429
321
1,921
24,119.0
17,789.0
358.0
360.0
..
..
14
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
137
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
277
0
720
17
584
5,985.0
7,615.0
10.0
48.0
..
169
..
..
..
..
36.0
4,359
169
17
4,062.0
3,829.0
406.0
556.0
..
..
1,548
..
..
..
..
3,948.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
889
..
..
6
1
730.0
1,730.0
123.0
..
14,022
20,289
14.0
446
1,197
880
72
19,211.0
4,340.0
928.0
65.0
12,482
9,210
15.6
2,259
1,465
1,462
270
4,572.0
3,537.0
166.0
115.0
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39
..
..
98
21
231
6,842.0
5,843.0
48.0
37.0
256
0
46
..
..
..
..
..
..
9,199
12,327.0
13,751.0
1,625.0
1,038.0
..
..
35
191
4.6
56
94
7
196
4,419.0
7,030.0
11.0
27.0
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,426
955
10.5
13
51
30
6
2,204.0
2,706.0
49.0
31.0
802
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
84
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,157
2,720
925
1,289
127
7,063.0
3,308.0
310.0
140.0
72,555
15,625
13,319
14,306
1,994
265,507.0
17,472.0
13,140.0
857.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
50
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.0
45
..
..
..
..
45.0
499.0
..
..
468
99
172
1,915.0
7,501.0
175.0
1,060.0
101,074
17,596
10,489
47,384
19,509
190,537.0
19,622.0
45,170.0
11,329.0
583
..
..
..
..
883.0
4,239.0
..
101.0
11,370
1,188
11.5
78
247
550
23
2,415.0
943.0
387.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
34
..
..
..
..
9
9.0
590.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81
18
230
7
341
..
..
20.0
210.0
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
28
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20
..
4
224
2,043.0
5,711.0
7.0
15.0
6,249
1,790
1,394
569
64
7,796.0
4,182.0
674.0
56.0
576
136
23.2
194
93
40
6
1,332.0
6,505.0
16.0
245.0
93,349
12,579
33,079
250,586.0
39,161.0
6,829.0
3,461.0
..
2,928
46
1,719
1,058
8,095
37,657.0
11,877.0
2,651.0
1,321.0
32,965
..
..
..
..
6,851.0
947
..
..
..
335
102
..
..
..
..
6,874
33,779
29.8
8,323
76,057
250
190
6.0
1,986.0
115.0
63.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11,300
1,268
1,222
1,285
5,623
3,707.0
14,896.0
1,049.0
489.0
..
66,310
3,266
4,575
6,582.0
1.0
350.0
..
..
176
..
5
51
7
63
3,120.0
3,383.0
65.0
1.0
103,377
94,405
16.5
39,013
19,672
258,839
59,882
290,238.0
54,741.0
24,818.0
5,533.0
..
..
1,504
41
294
2,725.0
4,760.0
55.0
55.0
879
1,271
232
11,240.0
94.0
123.0
872
137
56
4,684.0
6,188.0
73.0
12.0
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
45
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,999.0
..
124.0
58,844
6,622
9,292
167,275
46,419
191,470.0
44,619.0
65,891.0
6,567.0
..
..
124
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
844
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
60
122
4
341.0
6,333.0
21.0
832.0
..
..
69
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,207
6
36
136
1
3,125.0
3,065.0
102.0
49.0
..
..
1,050
..
110
194
1,253.0
284.0
..
..
12
..
..
0
3
..
..
..
1,674.0
..
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,732.0
..
..
..
..
231
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
428.0
7,629.0
61.0
1,228.0
2,185
1,814
11.8
28
67
101
18
3,599.0
3,048.0
87.0
334.0
732
1,543
3,072
128
119
..
..
..
..
440
77
2.0
8
67
..
7,503.0
48.0
1,395.0
113
3
16
2,025.0
2,932.0
205.0
1.0
157
..
6
428.0
836.0
..
..
17,720
1,272
6,455
15,940.0
19,983.0
627.0
1,135.0
..
..
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
64
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.0
259
318
494
9
2
410.0
294.0
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
110
1
20
991.0
1,058.0
13,112
162
617
1,364
16,707
90,684.0
40,759.0
1,729.0
2,270.0
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
227
6
19
64
60
2,688.0
7,486.0
1,207.0
999.0
..
..
34
..
..
..
..
5
1
1,251.0
6,817.0
46.0
1,541.0
..
..
164
109
128
7,034.0
4,604.0
791.0
192
3
..
1
6
23
3.0
7,510.0
8.0
1,357.0
2,536
5
104
224
797
13,534.0
12,478.0
3,728.0
2,222.0
68
..
24
78
1,157.0
4,167.0
30.0
88.0
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
79
..
..
1,611.0
3,797.0
1.0
95.0
..
..
442
..
..
11
71
2,464.0
1,812.0
16.0
19.0
30,412
40,722
48,573
2,207
287
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7,244
586
10.0
310
860
1,184
5,317
15,769.0
26,388.0
345.0
984.0
..
..
28
..
0
2
36
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.0
3,654
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9,854
3,908
19.5
410
589
1,153
652
11,440.0
28,251.0
615.0
3,538.0
658
..
..
..
..
..
5,037.0
5.0
1,180.0
7,772
209
677
23,544.0
4,512.0
364.0
125.0
..
..
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
158
4
47
14
389
4,924.0
7,646.0
19.0
78.0
..
..
44
..
..
..
..
..
1
46
109.0
862.0
3.0
36.0
61
58
7.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
648
..
67
1,182
19,907.0
12,393.0
131.0
227.0
916
9
546
375
3,359
20,991.0
21,900.0
539.0
564.0
28,753
13,319
8.5
452
2,721
4,676
139
33,930.0
6,403.0
1.0
61.0
13,556
2,249
5.3
101
821
925
20
24,607.0
4,284.0
1,862.0
88.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
770
0
0
..
..
11,164
70
808
975
78
19,950.0
4,549.0
830.0
186.0
35,542
548
4,997
29,269
16,248
161,681.0
57,395.0
2,616.0
3,386.0
91
..
..
..
5
1
246.0
2,119.0
5.0
64.0
..
..
4
..
1
3
15.0
437.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.0
2,885.0
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
0
..
6.0
1,436.0
..
50.0
..
..
7,636
..
..
715
1,691
7,423.0
10,831.0
321.0
503.0
296
18
2.1
..
..
..
..
..
47.0
5,169
..
178
13
3,127.0
12,503.0
122.0
987.0
15
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15
..
..
..
1,708.0
..
..
10,659
5,340
19,276
1,469
9,345
8,453.0
33,564.0
794.0
3,468.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,539.0
..
..
4,730
30
588
228
28
9,459.0
5,118.0
201.0
57.0
3,514
77
223
..
..
2,928.0
19.0
383.0
..
..
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9,679
1,906
5.3
109
2,012
889
6,608
21,543.0
15,430.0
723.0
1,237.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
53,342
1,920
4,986
2,799
221
69,460.0
8,051.0
17,249.0
606.0
713
..
..
218
263
5,983.0
3,432.0
390.0
67.0
..
..
13
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
7
..
..
..
375
..
267
1
1,333.0
3,417.0
230.0
20.0
..
..
15
..
0
23
..
..
766.0
611.0
..
73.0
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
2
..
1,745.0
..
..
19,362
7,259
3,099
2,038
390
17,727.0
3,795.0
821.0
27.0
21,060
54,887
27.1
17,539
12,075
1,477
446
38,564.0
49,480.0
4,858.0
7,384.0
..
..
311
..
..
..
..
..
198
..
10,205.0
2,840.0
251.0
75.0
..
..
71
..
..
..
..
1
220.0
5,469.0
131.0
379
1
1
..
..
..
..
8,631
33,347.0
18,997.0
3,383.0
1,078.0
..
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
69
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
160
..
..
3
165
767.0
2,419.0
18.0
22.0
4,207
180
409
..
6,458.0
129.0
1,449.0
30,402
2,184
2.0
..
764
5,352
489
194,769.0
32,425.0
38,713.0
7,139.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4,607.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
474
9
1,046.0
1,769.0
..
..
7,218
2,271
2,226
36,339.0
22,409.0
4,289.0
3,199.0
..
..
1,679
..
..
15
1,738
97,332
69,096
21.8
16,318
11,740
14,867
7,934
101,484.0
17,919.0
..
..
..
412,542
153,526
20.0
122,227
42,743
288,335
301,075
388,134.0
129,000.0
22,631.0
17,497.0
..
591
26
532
3,655.0
5,808.0
8.0
49.0
347
..
..
..
..
288
219
4,584.0
6,180.0
406.0
22.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,196
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,848
..
..
582
4,451
45,230.0
22,523.0
1,839.0
1,046.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
126
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
127
..
5
25
1,323.0
1,969.0
4.0
4.0
117
..
2,209.0
0.0
210
..
9
19
285.0
2,400.0
..
..
..
2,184,420
326,600
354,403
1,862,548
809,702
5,967,995.0
1,624,458.0
842,448.0
147,748.0
..
699,400
..
53,302
78,717
1,402,950
315,526
3,436,526.0
541,251.0
656,557.0
48,654.0
720,932
143,895
210,309
141,875
52,827
1,284,649.0
482,132.0
138,370.0
55,974.0
85,554
..
997
9,096
7,488
54,620
379,230.0
182,158.0
6,773.0
7,828.0
..
..
80,219
..
1,591
1,820
102,739.0
..
470,427
177,501
13.0
126,706
52,443
292,612
333,762
471,638.0
200,630.0
23,428.0
22,546.0
104,307
..
0
0
13,058
34,389
291,899.0
54,052.0
8,883.0
3,764.0
..
..
20,164
110
2,017
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3,909
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
143,877
140
2,721
19,199
55,491
502,753.0
254,142.0
26,170.0
19,975.0
..
648,449
2,869
40,127
1,016,205
215,227
3,493,268.0
578,244.0
606,575.0
47,107.0
..
1,396,451
323,591
311,555
827,076
538,798
1,964,278.0
770,099.0
209,447.0
80,249.0