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World Development Indicators:
Science and technology
Research and development (R&D)
High-technology exports
Charges for the use of intellectual property
Patent applications filed
Trademark applications filed (by count)
Industrial design applications filed (by count)
full-time equivalent per million people
full-time equivalent per million people
% of GDP
$ millions
$ millions
2005-15
2005-15
2013
2005-15
2016
2016
2016
2016
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
..
..
27
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
360
8
0.6
3
23
14
5
866.0
6,851.0
1.0
1,040.0
3,539
5
0.3
0
153
89
716
14,483.0
11,965.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
514.0
1,953.0
..
..
24
..
..
..
11
212
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
3
..
10
1,775.0
1.0
8,269
1,301
8.8
160
2,057
546
3,579
52,208.0
14,070.0
1,016.0
565.0
..
..
552
21
6.1
..
..
113
2
2,728.0
7,334.0
31.0
855.0
..
..
..
..
1
3.8
0
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
49,922
4,572
14.8
816
3,346
2,291
26,314
80,773.0
49,033.0
2,821.0
4,203.0
12,558
21,002
1,076
1,372
2,205
236
15,209.0
8,140.0
989.0
1,181.0
..
..
481
9
..
..
184
2,801.0
9,304.0
11.0
1,096.0
..
..
17
..
..
..
0
23
2
68
191.0
973.0
236
21
1.0
..
..
8
185
380.0
10,315.0
3.0
61.0
..
..
2,019
..
4
47
41
299
9,322.0
3,487.0
1,284.0
92.0
..
..
44
..
38
24.3
45
159.0
1,178.0
1.0
3.0
..
..
1,041
606
4.7
28
125
543
148
4,489.0
14,326.0
202.0
185.0
17,226
38,068
12.5
3,536
3,014
949
148
..
..
..
..
..
..
10
..
..
..
..
3
..
26
..
..
..
733.0
..
..
181
..
1
2.8
..
..
..
..
35.0
..
..
..
1
47.4
0
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
..
..
0
0
1,647.0
..
92
15
24
99
495
93
2.6
13
8
689.0
9,246.0
24.0
1,173.0
181
27
0.4
1
6
2,139.0
56.0
51,136
9,775
13.4
651
5,141
4,641
25,578
130,720.0
27,989.0
3,289.0
2,750.0
..
..
126
..
0
20
..
91.0
2,753
1,186
8.0
50
184
280
11
13,632.0
3,990.0
620.0
138.0
184
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
86
40
2
10
65
1,513.0
9.0
60.0
..
..
527
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
60,611
23,974
12.9
4,448
9,622
4,277
32,687
83,504.0
71,630.0
797.0
5,049.0
9
0
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,358
620
7.2
43
1,575
443
2,831
28,903.0
14,061.0
43.0
359.0
..
362,973
496,007
25.0
1,161
23,980
968,252
133,612
2,658,769.0
169,314.0
551,481.0
17,578.0
..
422
12.1
239
11,973
28,916.0
47,511.0
1,335.0
3,847.0
..
..
216
3
62
1,833.0
11,307.0
21.0
228.0
..
4,663
740
9.8
46
439
321
1,921
24,119.0
17,782.0
358.0
360.0
..
..
14
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
84
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
61
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
286
942
18.3
595
17
584
5,985.0
7,615.0
10.0
48.0
..
165
..
..
..
..
36.0
4,702
1,056
11.6
52
269
169
17
4,062.0
3,829.0
406.0
556.0
..
..
1,571
..
..
..
..
1,942.0
8,113.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
5
28
..
..
..
2,573.0
..
..
935
30
7.3
2
93
6
1
737.0
1,724.0
123.0
..
14,402
20,289
14.0
446
1,197
880
72
19,211.0
4,336.0
928.0
65.0
13,053
9,303
15.7
2,237
1,636
1,462
270
4,572.0
3,534.0
166.0
115.0
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39
..
212
0
98
21
231
6,842.0
5,843.0
48.0
37.0
270
104
8.4
0
46
20
475
10,247.0
7,276.0
65.0
95.0
8,949
52
0.5
188
718
1,337
12,327.0
13,741.0
1,625.0
1,038.0
..
15
191
4.6
56
94
7
196
4,419.0
7,030.0
11.0
27.0
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,506
979
10.8
13
52
30
6
2,204.0
2,707.0
49.0
31.0
842
30
17.2
0
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
90
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,824
3,329
2,720
925
1,289
127
7,063.0
3,308.0
310.0
140.0
75,266
103,840
26.7
15,472
13,167
14,306
1,994
265,507.0
17,462.0
13,140.0
857.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
51
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.0
45
0
..
..
..
..
45.0
499.0
..
..
473
20
3.9
1
16
99
172
1,915.0
7,499.0
175.0
1,060.0
105,378
189,646
16.9
17,596
10,489
47,384
19,509
190,540.0
19,617.0
45,170.0
11,329.0
604
14
..
..
883.0
4,237.0
101.0
11,923
1,189
11.4
78
247
550
23
2,412.0
943.0
387.0
..
..
34
..
0
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
36
..
..
..
0
8
..
9
9.0
590.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
84
243
0
170
7
341
..
..
20.0
210.0
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
0
0.2
13
..
..
..
..
29
..
..
..
25
2
..
..
..
..
20
..
33
1
51
4
224
2,043.0
5,711.0
7.0
15.0
6,468
12,444
14.0
1,790
1,394
569
64
7,796.0
4,180.0
674.0
56.0
595
136
23.2
193
105
40
6
1,332.0
6,504.0
16.0
245.0
88,942
13,336
7.1
525
5,466
12,579
33,079
250,586.0
39,127.0
6,829.0
3,461.0
..
2,776
3,947
5.8
47
1,732
1,058
8,095
37,657.0
11,877.0
2,651.0
1,321.0
33,761
..
..
..
..
6,842.0
853
..
..
0
2
335
102
..
..
..
..
7,262
33,779
29.8
8,323
76,057
250
190
6.0
1,986.0
115.0
63.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11,750
10,279
18.4
1,265
1,202
1,285
5,623
3,707.0
14,888.0
1,049.0
489.0
..
68,768
27,906
7.5
3,386
4,673
6,580.0
1.0
350.0
..
..
196
..
2
0.4
5
51
7
63
3,120.0
3,383.0
65.0
1.0
109,258
92,883
16.2
39,013
19,672
258,839
59,882
290,238.0
54,708.0
24,818.0
5,533.0
1,521
85
1.9
22
24
41
294
2,725.0
4,760.0
55.0
55.0
1,015
2,058
30.4
1
127
1,271
232
11,232.0
94.0
123.0
920
66
144
137
56
4,684.0
6,186.0
73.0
12.0
..
..
1
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,995.0
..
124.0
59,206
118,365
26.6
6,622
9,292
167,275
46,419
191,470.0
44,600.0
65,891.0
6,567.0
..
..
128
..
..
..
0
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
879
76
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
63
63
18.5
3
8
122
4
341.0
6,329.0
21.0
832.0
..
..
72
..
275
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,235
869
13.0
6
36
136
1
3,125.0
3,065.0
102.0
49.0
..
..
1,096
..
33
16
33
110
194
1,253.0
284.0
..
..
14
..
..
0
3
..
..
..
1,672.0
..
..
..
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,730.0
..
..
..
..
219
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
428.0
7,621.0
61.0
1,228.0
2,319
1,809
11.8
28
67
101
18
3,599.0
3,047.0
87.0
334.0
772
774
7.6
1,967
3,573
128
119
..
..
..
..
506
77
2.0
8
67
..
7,510.0
48.0
1,395.0
118
4
0.6
3
8
3
16
2,025.0
2,929.0
205.0
1.0
160
..
6
428.0
836.0
..
..
16,291
55,588
43.0
111
1,343
1,272
6,455
15,940.0
19,983.0
627.0
1,135.0
..
..
5
..
0
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
65
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.0
265
578
21.5
318
494
9
2
410.0
294.0
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
0
0.0
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
120
1
0.1
3
18
1
20
991.0
1,058.0
13,470
46,810
15.3
7
277
1,364
16,707
90,684.0
40,745.0
1,729.0
2,270.0
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
231
14
3.1
6
19
64
60
2,688.0
7,492.0
1,207.0
999.0
..
..
37
..
..
..
..
5
1
1,251.0
6,810.0
46.0
1,541.0
..
..
169
35
2
25
109
128
7,034.0
4,604.0
791.0
199
3
..
1
6
23
3.0
7,516.0
8.0
1,357.0
2,506
592
3.7
5
104
224
797
13,534.0
12,472.0
3,728.0
2,222.0
68
..
19
24
30
1,157.0
4,165.0
30.0
88.0
..
..
37
..
255
7.6
12
231
..
..
..
..
86
24
2.2
0
2
..
..
1,611.0
3,795.0
1.0
95.0
..
..
485
..
..
11
71
2,464.0
1,812.0
16.0
19.0
32,017
53,045
38,939
48,082
2,207
287
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7,594
599
10.2
311
821
1,184
5,317
15,769.0
26,380.0
345.0
984.0
..
..
29
..
2
33
..
2
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.0
3,809
7
0
252
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,353
3,914
19.5
528
542
1,153
652
11,440.0
28,234.0
615.0
3,538.0
667
124
2.8
..
..
..
..
..
5,033.0
5.0
1,180.0
8,078
304
1.9
10
221
209
677
23,544.0
4,512.0
364.0
125.0
..
..
4
..
3
60.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
160
575
4
47
14
389
4,924.0
7,646.0
19.0
78.0
..
..
54
..
..
..
..
..
1
46
109.0
862.0
3.0
36.0
61
58
7.2
..
19
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
682
165
4.2
9
324
67
1,182
19,907.0
12,393.0
131.0
227.0
962
26,140
55.1
9
546
375
3,359
20,991.0
21,894.0
539.0
564.0
30,064
13,319
8.5
444
2,692
4,676
139
33,930.0
6,398.0
1.0
61.0
14,112
2,251
5.3
101
821
925
20
24,607.0
4,286.0
1,862.0
88.0
578
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
808
5
0
0
..
..
11,177
4,298
8.5
70
808
975
78
19,950.0
4,547.0
830.0
186.0
39,715
6,640
10.7
548
4,997
29,269
16,248
161,696.0
57,356.0
2,616.0
3,386.0
88
..
5
12.3
..
..
5
1
246.0
2,117.0
5.0
64.0
..
..
5
..
0
0.9
1
3
15.0
437.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
7
296
10.0
2,883.0
16.0
..
..
1
..
1
65.5
..
0
..
6.0
1,434.0
..
50.0
..
..
7,411
1,092
..
..
715
1,691
7,423.0
10,831.0
321.0
503.0
299
18
2.1
..
..
..
..
..
47.0
5,472
309
..
42
200
178
13
3,127.0
12,507.0
122.0
987.0
16
1
1
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15
..
0
0.0
..
..
1,707.0
..
..
10,980
126,323
67.4
5,340
19,276
1,469
9,345
8,458.0
33,541.0
794.0
3,468.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
2
..
..
..
1,539.0
..
..
4,617
6,851
9.8
30
588
228
28
9,459.0
5,117.0
201.0
57.0
3,726
1,740
78
224
..
..
2,927.0
19.0
383.0
..
..
4
..
0
1.5
1
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,251
1,906
5.3
109
2,012
889
6,608
21,543.0
15,430.0
723.0
1,237.0
..
..
10
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
55,736
14,202
7.0
1,920
4,987
2,799
221
69,460.0
8,047.0
17,249.0
606.0
744
60
0.8
..
..
218
263
5,983.0
3,432.0
390.0
67.0
..
..
13
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3
..
4
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
3
..
7
..
..
..
359
..
0
267
1
1,333.0
3,414.0
230.0
20.0
..
..
16
..
9
0
23
..
..
766.0
611.0
..
73.0
..
..
33
..
..
..
0
16
..
2
..
1,743.0
..
..
20,093
14,981
14.3
7,115
3,116
2,038
390
17,727.0
3,793.0
821.0
27.0
21,878
54,887
27.1
21,045
12,098
1,477
446
38,564.0
49,453.0
4,858.0
7,384.0
..
..
266
..
..
..
..
..
198
..
1.0
2,838.0
251.0
75.0
..
..
62
..
..
..
..
1
220.0
5,466.0
131.0
408
16
2.0
0
1
1
1
..
..
..
..
7,917
34,721
69
3,979
1,029
7,138
33,347.0
18,997.0
3,383.0
1,078.0
..
..
6
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
64
0
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
167
1
50
3
165
767.0
2,419.0
18.0
22.0
4,388
673
23
18
180
409
..
6,453.0
129.0
1,449.0
31,147
2,183
2.0
..
764
5,352
489
194,769.0
32,410.0
38,713.0
7,139.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4,606.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
496
8
2
20
9
1,046.0
1,769.0
..
..
7,450
73
358
2,271
2,226
36,339.0
22,401.0
4,289.0
3,199.0
..
1,776
429
..
..
15
1,738
6,425.0
14,990.0
103,051
68,280
21.6
17,116
11,953
14,867
7,934
101,491.0
17,904.0
5,999.0
473.0
..
435,212
153,187
20.0
124,454
44,392
288,335
301,075
388,136.0
128,947.0
22,631.0
17,497.0
..
600
149
9.7
33
108
26
532
3,655.0
5,808.0
8.0
49.0
353
..
..
..
..
288
219
4,584.0
6,178.0
406.0
22.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,243
..
258
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,858
..
..
582
4,451
45,230.0
22,515.0
1,839.0
1,046.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4
0
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
130
..
5
25
1,323.0
1,969.0
4.0
4.0
121
..
2
2,207.0
223
..
14
5.2
2
10
9
19
285.0
2,398.0
..
..
..
2,210,065
19.2
332,962
372,006
1,864,324
818,981
5,976,653.0
1,653,885.0
848,512.0
148,332.0
..
666,578
..
26.3
53,517
84,494
1,403,979
322,664
3,436,549.0
541,071.0
656,557.0
48,654.0
754,879
717,505
16.4
147,083
211,180
141,882
53,123
1,284,681.0
481,957.0
144,369.0
56,463.0
89,261
..
12.5
1,072
11,623
7,510
55,176
391,610.0
197,123.0
6,838.0
7,923.0
..
..
81,837
14,048
1,650
2,218
3,932
13,113
117,675.0
..
495,917
177,162
18.7
128,902
54,023
292,612
333,762
471,640.0
200,577.0
23,428.0
22,546.0
100,330
..
6.6
539
5,734
13,058
34,389
291,899.0
54,017.0
8,883.0
3,764.0
..
..
20,853
..
199
2,734
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4,035
..
..
33
63
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
140,029
902
10,071
19,917
56,828
492,549.0
254,036.0
26,170.0
19,975.0
..
618,660
667,537
19.8
3,170
48,500
1,017,254
222,853
3,505,509.0
589,530.0
606,640.0
47,202.0
..
1,455,004
19.6
328,857
313,372
827,085
539,162
1,970,899.0
788,362.0
215,446.0
80,738.0