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World Development Indicators:
Science and technology
Research and development (R&D)
High-technology exports
Charges for the use of intellectual property
Patent applications filed
Trademark applications filed (by count)
Industrial design applications filed (by count)
full-time equivalent per million people
full-time equivalent per million people
% of GDP
$ millions
$ millions
2005-15
2005-15
2013
2005-15
2016
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
..
..
27
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
184
1.5
2
25
14
5
866.0
6,844.0
1.0
1,040.0
3,653
0.2
2
247
89
716
14,483.0
11,972.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
514.0
1,953.0
..
..
23
..
..
..
17
265
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
0.0
..
..
10
..
1,776.0
1.0
8,053
9.0
171
1,909
546
3,579
52,208.0
14,070.0
1,016.0
565.0
..
..
559
17
5.3
..
..
113
2
2,728.0
7,336.0
31.0
855.0
..
..
..
..
4.7
..
14
..
..
..
..
..
..
47,806
13.5
783
3,525
2,291
26,314
80,792.0
49,030.0
2,821.0
4,203.0
12,031
13.4
883
1,461
2,205
236
15,209.0
8,141.0
989.0
1,181.0
..
..
482
2.5
184
..
2,801.0
9,309.0
11.0
1,096.0
..
..
16
..
0.0
..
18
210
1.0
..
..
8
185
380.0
10,318.0
3.0
61.0
..
..
1,971
..
..
..
1
24
41
299
9,322.0
3,487.0
1,284.0
92.0
..
..
39
..
38
18.3
45
159.0
1,178.0
1.0
3.0
..
..
1,001
604
4.3
22
133
543
148
4,489.0
14,324.0
202.0
185.0
16,511
13.0
3,194
3,331
949
148
..
..
..
..
..
..
10
..
0.0
..
4
..
26
..
..
..
733.0
..
..
187
..
0.9
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
35.0
..
..
..
26.8
9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
..
0
0
1,648.0
..
89
6.5
22
84
437
93
2.8
13
10
689.0
9,238.0
24.0
1,173.0
165
0.6
0
8
2,141.0
56.0
48,622
12.3
581
5,250
4,641
25,578
130,720.0
27,989.0
3,289.0
2,750.0
..
..
120
..
17.9
..
..
..
91.0
2,677
7.6
50
185
280
11
13,632.0
3,990.0
620.0
138.0
177
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
3.5
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
84
..
0.8
65
1,517.0
9.0
60.0
..
..
527
..
3.7
1
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
57,797
23,974
13.8
4,339
9,870
4,277
32,687
83,504.0
71,630.0
797.0
5,049.0
8
0.0
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,158
603
5.9
88
1,545
443
2,831
28,903.0
14,061.0
43.0
359.0
..
401,435
25.8
1,085
22,022
968,252
133,612
2,658,732.0
169,392.0
551,481.0
17,578.0
..
422
10.7
642
1,861
239
11,973
28,916.0
47,511.0
1,335.0
3,847.0
..
0.0
..
169
3
62
1,833.0
11,307.0
21.0
228.0
..
4,456
9.5
52
467
321
1,921
24,119.0
17,789.0
358.0
360.0
..
..
14
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
137
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
277
16.8
555
17
584
5,985.0
7,615.0
10.0
48.0
..
169
..
4.8
..
..
..
36.0
4,359
9.0
46
268
169
17
4,062.0
3,829.0
406.0
556.0
..
..
1,548
..
..
..
..
3,948.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
10
26
..
..
..
..
..
..
889
6.2
..
..
6
1
730.0
1,730.0
123.0
..
14,022
20,289
14.9
466
1,203
880
72
19,211.0
4,340.0
928.0
65.0
12,482
9,210
16.0
2,128
1,428
1,462
270
4,572.0
3,537.0
166.0
115.0
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39
..
3.8
..
89
21
231
6,842.0
5,843.0
48.0
37.0
256
7.2
..
72
..
..
..
..
..
..
9,199
0.8
..
214
12,327.0
13,751.0
1,625.0
1,038.0
..
..
35
191
4.4
29
70
7
196
4,419.0
7,030.0
11.0
27.0
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,426
955
11.4
11
43
30
6
2,204.0
2,706.0
49.0
31.0
802
4.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
84
..
2.3
0
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,157
8.7
2,400
827
1,289
127
7,063.0
3,308.0
310.0
140.0
72,555
26.8
14,974
13,962
14,306
1,994
265,507.0
17,472.0
13,140.0
857.0
..
..
..
..
11.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
50
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.0
45
..
..
..
..
45.0
499.0
..
..
468
5.6
1
7
99
172
1,915.0
7,501.0
175.0
1,060.0
101,074
16.7
14,585
8,917
47,384
19,509
190,537.0
19,622.0
45,170.0
11,329.0
583
..
..
..
..
883.0
4,239.0
..
101.0
11,370
1,188
11.0
54
291
550
23
2,415.0
943.0
387.0
..
..
..
..
12.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
34
..
..
..
..
9
9.0
590.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81
5.0
16
243
7
341
..
..
20.0
210.0
..
..
12
..
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
0.1
3
18
..
..
..
..
..
28
..
..
..
30
2
..
..
..
..
20
..
1
46
4
224
2,043.0
5,711.0
7.0
15.0
6,249
1,504
1,388
569
64
7,796.0
4,182.0
674.0
56.0
576
136
19.9
230
84
40
6
1,332.0
6,505.0
16.0
245.0
93,349
7.5
467
5,009
12,579
33,079
250,586.0
39,161.0
6,829.0
3,461.0
..
2,928
6.6
54
1,653
1,058
8,095
37,657.0
11,877.0
2,651.0
1,321.0
32,965
..
..
..
..
6,851.0
947
..
..
..
1
335
102
..
..
..
..
6,874
33,779
26.8
7,457
75,114
250
190
6.0
1,986.0
115.0
63.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11,300
19.7
1,096
1,062
1,285
5,623
3,707.0
14,896.0
1,049.0
489.0
..
66,310
3,048
4,331
6,582.0
1.0
350.0
..
..
176
..
0.1
6
51
7
63
3,120.0
3,383.0
65.0
1.0
103,377
94,405
16.8
36,631
16,990
258,839
59,882
290,238.0
54,741.0
24,818.0
5,533.0
..
..
1,504
1.8
13
15
41
294
2,725.0
4,760.0
55.0
55.0
879
41.2
1
149
1,271
232
11,240.0
94.0
123.0
872
137
56
4,684.0
6,188.0
73.0
12.0
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
45
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,999.0
..
124.0
58,844
26.8
6,199
10,056
167,275
46,419
191,470.0
44,619.0
65,891.0
6,567.0
..
..
124
..
..
..
0
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
844
2.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
60
11.9
1
6
122
4
341.0
6,333.0
21.0
832.0
..
..
69
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,207
7
34
136
1
3,125.0
3,065.0
102.0
49.0
..
..
1,050
..
24
34
110
194
1,253.0
284.0
..
..
12
..
0
3
..
..
..
1,674.0
..
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,732.0
..
..
..
..
231
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
428.0
7,629.0
61.0
1,228.0
2,185
1,814
11.9
23
48
101
18
3,599.0
3,048.0
87.0
334.0
732
6.8
1,611
3,129
128
119
..
..
..
..
440
77
3.0
9
56
..
7,503.0
48.0
1,395.0
113
0.2
3
16
2,025.0
2,932.0
205.0
1.0
157
..
2.2
..
4
6
428.0
836.0
..
..
17,720
42.8
92
1,257
1,272
6,455
15,940.0
19,983.0
627.0
1,135.0
..
..
5
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
64
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.0
259
31.9
311
479
9
2
410.0
294.0
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
110
0.1
1
18
1
20
991.0
1,058.0
13,112
14.7
308
873
1,364
16,707
90,684.0
40,759.0
1,729.0
2,270.0
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
227
4.0
4
18
64
60
2,688.0
7,486.0
1,207.0
999.0
..
..
34
..
..
..
..
5
1
1,251.0
6,817.0
46.0
1,541.0
..
..
164
4.0
2
16
109
128
7,034.0
4,604.0
791.0
192
3
..
1
3
23
3.0
7,510.0
8.0
1,357.0
2,536
3.5
3
96
224
797
13,534.0
12,478.0
3,728.0
2,222.0
68
11.6
20
24
78
1,157.0
4,167.0
30.0
88.0
..
..
38
..
..
..
22
272
..
..
..
..
..
..
79
0
10
..
..
1,611.0
3,797.0
1.0
95.0
..
..
442
0.6
..
..
11
71
2,464.0
1,812.0
16.0
19.0
30,412
39,081
47,096
2,207
287
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
7,244
586
9.6
305
848
1,184
5,317
15,769.0
26,388.0
345.0
984.0
..
..
28
..
0.5
..
1
36
..
14.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.0
3,654
..
258
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9,854
3,908
20.5
510
570
1,153
652
11,440.0
28,251.0
615.0
3,538.0
658
4.1
..
..
..
..
..
5,037.0
5.0
1,180.0
7,772
1.6
15
180
209
677
23,544.0
4,512.0
364.0
125.0
..
..
4
..
40.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
158
0.0
6
57
14
389
4,924.0
7,646.0
19.0
78.0
..
..
44
..
..
..
..
1
46
109.0
862.0
3.0
36.0
61
58
5.7
..
19
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
648
..
4.7
22
292
67
1,182
19,907.0
12,393.0
131.0
227.0
916
53.1
11
613
375
3,359
20,991.0
21,900.0
539.0
564.0
28,753
13,319
8.8
415
2,431
4,676
139
33,930.0
6,403.0
1.0
61.0
13,556
2,249
72
685
925
20
24,607.0
4,284.0
1,862.0
88.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
770
3.4
..
..
..
..
11,164
7.5
89
809
975
78
19,950.0
4,549.0
830.0
186.0
35,542
13.8
726
5,634
29,269
16,248
161,681.0
57,395.0
2,616.0
3,386.0
91
..
13.0
..
5
1
246.0
2,119.0
5.0
64.0
..
..
4
..
0.4
0
2
1
3
15.0
437.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.0
2,885.0
..
..
..
..
1
..
42.3
..
0
..
6.0
1,436.0
..
50.0
..
..
7,636
0.8
..
..
715
1,691
7,423.0
10,831.0
321.0
503.0
296
18
3.6
..
..
..
..
..
47.0
5,169
..
45
180
178
13
3,127.0
12,503.0
122.0
987.0
15
7.2
1
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15
..
0.4
..
..
1,708.0
..
..
10,659
49.3
5,180
18,698
1,469
9,345
8,453.0
33,564.0
794.0
3,468.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
2
..
..
..
1,539.0
..
..
4,730
10.3
26
522
228
28
9,459.0
5,118.0
201.0
57.0
3,514
6.4
58
221
..
..
2,928.0
19.0
383.0
..
..
4
..
2.8
1
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9,679
1,906
5.9
103
1,708
889
6,608
21,543.0
15,430.0
723.0
1,237.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
53,342
7.1
1,613
4,519
2,799
221
69,460.0
8,051.0
17,249.0
606.0
713
0.8
..
..
218
263
5,983.0
3,432.0
390.0
67.0
..
..
13
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
8.3
..
..
7
..
..
..
375
..
0
267
1
1,333.0
3,417.0
230.0
20.0
..
..
15
..
0
20
..
..
766.0
611.0
..
73.0
..
..
38
..
..
..
0
14
..
2
..
1,745.0
..
..
19,362
14.3
8,828
4,173
2,038
390
17,727.0
3,795.0
821.0
27.0
21,060
54,887
26.8
16,178
12,932
1,477
446
38,564.0
49,480.0
4,858.0
7,384.0
..
..
311
..
..
..
..
..
198
..
10,205.0
2,840.0
251.0
75.0
..
..
71
..
..
..
..
1
220.0
5,469.0
131.0
379
0.8
0
2
1
1
..
..
..
..
8,631
21.4
85
4,121
33,347.0
18,997.0
3,383.0
1,078.0
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
69
0.4
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
160
..
..
..
..
3
165
767.0
2,419.0
18.0
22.0
4,207
6.3
22
21
180
409
..
6,458.0
129.0
1,449.0
30,402
2,184
2.2
..
682
5,352
489
194,769.0
32,425.0
38,713.0
7,139.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4,607.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
474
1.8
4
14
9
1,046.0
1,769.0
..
..
7,218
7.3
85
358
2,271
2,226
36,339.0
22,409.0
4,289.0
3,199.0
..
..
1,679
..
..
15
1,738
97,332
69,096
20.8
19,370
12,940
14,867
7,934
101,484.0
17,919.0
..
..
..
412,542
153,526
19.0
124,665
39,495
288,335
301,075
388,134.0
129,000.0
22,631.0
17,497.0
..
591
13.8
0
42
26
532
3,655.0
5,808.0
8.0
49.0
347
..
..
..
..
288
219
4,584.0
6,180.0
406.0
22.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,196
..
..
382
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,848
..
..
582
4,451
45,230.0
22,523.0
1,839.0
1,046.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
126
..
0.8
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
127
..
4.7
..
5
5
25
1,323.0
1,969.0
4.0
4.0
117
5.3
..
2
2,209.0
0.0
210
..
2.9
2
20
9
19
285.0
2,400.0
..
..
..
2,184,420
18.5
323,346
363,598
1,862,548
809,702
5,967,995.0
1,624,458.0
842,448.0
147,748.0
..
699,400
..
24.6
51,092
82,111
1,402,950
315,526
3,436,526.0
541,251.0
656,557.0
48,654.0
720,932
16.9
139,819
210,205
141,875
52,827
1,284,649.0
482,132.0
138,370.0
55,974.0
85,554
..
11.5
1,345
12,151
7,488
54,620
379,230.0
182,158.0
6,773.0
7,828.0
..
..
80,219
..
1,471
2,174
102,739.0
..
470,427
177,501
18.1
129,004
49,374
292,612
333,762
471,638.0
200,630.0
23,428.0
22,546.0
104,307
..
6.9
483
5,220
13,058
34,389
291,899.0
54,052.0
8,883.0
3,764.0
..
..
20,164
131
2,363
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3,909
..
..
3.4
36
61
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
141,887
10.2
759
9,231
19,060
55,028
498,128.0
242,318.0
25,940.0
18,860.0
..
646,082
20.5
3,531
47,650
1,016,175
215,673
3,493,831.0
586,239.0
606,399.0
47,666.0
..
1,400,796
18.5
319,020
306,656
827,245
538,815
1,968,340.0
773,928.0
209,853.0
80,805.0