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World Development Indicators:
Science and technology
Research and development (R&D)
High-technology exports
Charges for the use of intellectual property
Patent applications filed
Trademark applications filed (by count)
Industrial design applications filed (by count)
full-time equivalent per million people
full-time equivalent per million people
% of GDP
$ millions
$ millions
2005-15
2005-15
2016
2005-15
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
..
..
80
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
191
8
0.6
3
23
21
4
918.0
6,890.0
1.0
941.0
4,447
5
0.3
0
153
106
566
7,059.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
3
618.0
1,769.0
..
..
39
..
..
..
11
212
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
0
3
..
12
4.0
1,714.0
..
8,648
1,301
8.8
160
2,057
884
2,925
55,739.0
15,319.0
1,115.0
538.0
..
..
521
21
5.9
..
..
125
1
2,356.0
6,777.0
23.0
415.0
..
..
..
..
1
3.8
0
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
51,068
4,572
14.8
821
3,318
2,620
25,774
81,399.0
53,674.0
2,739.0
4,539.0
12,366
21,002
15.3
1,076
1,372
2,078
237
14,689.0
8,541.0
701.0
1,439.0
..
..
480
9
2.1
144
19
2,817.0
8,767.0
22.0
618.0
..
..
14
..
..
..
0
23
3
34
425.0
981.0
211
21
1.0
..
..
6
171
371.0
10,844.0
23.0
67.0
..
..
2,546
..
0
46
77
267
8,580.0
3,795.0
1,359.0
97.0
..
..
48
..
38
24.3
41
202.0
892.0
3.0
1.0
..
..
937
606
4.7
28
126
455
66
4,652.0
14,107.0
202.0
347.0
16,394
38,068
12.5
3,536
3,014
1,054
119
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
3
..
37
..
..
..
291.0
..
..
167
..
1
2.8
0
1
..
..
..
..
4.0
37.0
..
..
..
1
47.4
0
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
40
..
..
..
0
0
1,746.0
..
95
15
4.5
24
99
12
241
3,000.0
4,923.0
40.0
23.0
509
93
2.6
13
8
60
6
797.0
9,746.0
143.0
965.0
227
27
0.4
1
6
1
6
537.0
2,734.0
105.0
53,607
9,775
13.4
651
5,141
5,200
22,810
137,878.0
28,490.0
3,400.0
2,627.0
..
..
217
..
0
20
..
..
108.0
2,559
1,186
8.0
50
184
230
11
14,243.0
3,923.0
648.0
277.0
222
5
4.4
1
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
117
40
0.4
2
10
4,099.0
..
..
670
..
1
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
57,356
23,974
12.9
4,208
10,611
4,078
30,667
81,540.0
72,182.0
916.0
5,254.0
8
0
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
0
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6,746
620
7.1
43
1,575
386
2,521
31,820.0
13,548.0
89.0
312.0
..
426,165
496,007
25.2
1,161
23,980
1,204,981
133,522
3,526,953.0
170,963.0
631,949.0
18,395.0
..
422
12.1
233
13,859
27,064.0
44,651.0
1,304.0
3,632.0
..
..
174
51
1,684.0
9,823.0
45.0
173.0
..
6,121
740
9.8
46
439
545
1,658
24,299.0
18,438.0
227.0
306.0
..
..
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
113
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
78
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
377
942
18.3
0
516
9
496
6,797.0
7,376.0
17.0
47.0
..
178
..
..
..
..
..
..
42.0
4,056
1,056
11.6
52
269
175
13
4,334.0
3,999.0
573.0
561.0
..
..
1,045
..
..
..
..
32
163
2,242.0
7,616.0
7.0
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
5
28
..
..
..
2,809.0
..
..
973
30
7.3
2
93
3
1
1,090.0
1,892.0
46.0
..
15,963
20,289
13.9
446
1,197
792
47
19,301.0
5,113.0
905.0
193.0
13,471
9,303
15.7
2,237
1,636
1,552
298
7,596.0
3,551.0
5.0
400.0
..
..
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
0
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
..
212
4.4
..
98
16
257
7,446.0
5,566.0
50.0
21.0
1,096
104
8.4
0
46
45
329
9,254.0
6,636.0
71.0
65.0
10,807
52
0.5
188
918
1,231
12,750.0
22,372.0
951.0
..
29
191
4.6
56
94
4
171
3,621.0
6,999.0
17.0
23.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,482
979
10.3
13
52
29
1
1,999.0
2,412.0
58.0
233.0
1,121
30
17.2
0
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
155
..
3
2.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,545
3,329
8.4
2,720
925
1,260
108
7,516.0
2,889.0
199.0
69,431
103,840
26.7
15,472
13,167
14,206
2,012
258,090.0
16,111.0
13,675.0
1,076.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
59
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.0
47
0
1.3
..
..
..
..
1,165.0
..
..
579
20
3.9
1
16
96
178
2,217.0
7,208.0
120.0
535.0
103,122
189,646
16.9
17,596
10,489
48,480
19,419
190,216.0
19,767.0
46,033.0
10,155.0
982
14
1.5
..
..
14
17
900.0
4,619.0
453.0
116.0
10,725
1,189
11.4
78
247
606
40
1.0
2,361.0
912.0
201.0
..
..
26
..
0
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
34
..
..
..
0
8
..
17
18.0
617.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
85
243
5.4
0
170
3
266
..
..
205.0
187.0
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
..
0
0.2
3
14
18
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
..
..
..
25
2
..
..
..
..
33
..
33
2.5
1
51
10
185
2,185.0
5,363.0
15.0
22.0
6,208
12,444
14.0
1,790
1,394
616
49
9,318.0
3,919.0
856.0
138.0
652
136
23.2
193
105
35
3
1,521.0
7,553.0
49.0
265.0
110,320
13,336
7.1
525
5,466
13,199
31,858
264,662.0
48,961.0
6,753.0
3,920.0
..
7,729
3,947
5.8
47
1,732
8,538
48,756.0
14,965.0
2,581.0
1,312.0
40,975
..
..
..
..
14,930
702
177,538.0
13,224.0
15,811.0
168.0
1,227
..
..
0
2
..
..
..
..
6,834
33,779
29.1
8,323
76,057
202
85
20.0
1,999.0
122.0
59.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11,893
10,279
18.4
1,265
1,202
1,300
5,119
3,463.0
15,352.0
1,181.0
684.0
..
69,125
27,906
7.5
3,386
4,673
8,848
973
83,358.0
10,679.0
26,698.0
390.0
..
..
135
..
2
0.4
5
51
19
59
2,742.0
2,607.0
178.0
5.0
96,536
92,883
16.2
39,013
19,672
260,244
58,137
390,525.0
60,795.0
24,547.0
6,466.0
1,652
85
1.9
22
24
22
256
3,013.0
4,333.0
53.0
48.0
1,564
2,058
30.4
1
127
993
231
8,495.0
14,429.0
89.0
150.0
987
66
144
144
59
4,791.0
89.0
15.0
..
..
2
..
0
4.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
44
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,517.0
..
55.0
63,063
118,365
26.6
6,615
9,429
163,424
45,406
183,620.0
48,358.0
62,633.0
6,487.0
..
..
189
..
..
..
0
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
739
76
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
101
63
18.5
3
8
84
5
269.0
6,088.0
17.0
444.0
..
..
85
..
275
33.6
..
..
..
..
..
1,686.0
..
..
1,257
869
12.5
6
36
95
18
2,214.0
3,082.0
176.0
66.0
..
..
1,398
..
33
2.4
16
33
..
..
23
..
..
0
3
..
..
..
1,715.0
..
..
..
..
17
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,039.0
..
..
..
..
139
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
490.0
8,266.0
151.0
1,088.0
2,181
1,809
11.7
28
67
95
58
3,851.0
2,922.0
56.0
367.0
818
774
7.6
1,967
3,573
143
301
..
..
..
..
483
77
2.0
8
67
..
7,842.0
81.0
857.0
103
4
0.6
3
8
6
30
2,757.0
3,293.0
166.0
4.0
203
..
0
4
3
1
499.0
668.0
..
..
20,332
55,588
43.0
111
1,343
1,109
6,127
18,527.0
20,580.0
701.0
726.0
..
..
5
..
0
0.0
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
87
7
4.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.0
320
578
21.5
318
494
3
1
435.0
167.0
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20
..
0
0.0
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
156
1
0.1
3
18
2
36
1,110.0
1,218.0
14,529
46,810
15.3
7
277
1,310
16,103
98,739.0
42,987.0
1,651.0
2,645.0
..
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
295
14
3.1
6
19
91
64
3,049.0
8,018.0
351.0
551.0
..
..
40
..
..
..
..
7
7
1,624.0
7,625.0
12.0
1,206.0
..
..
112
35
16.3
2
25
112
107
7,629.0
4,411.0
311.0
512.0
258
3
..
1
6
10
..
7,236.0
8.0
911.0
4,063
592
3.7
5
104
237
1,066
15,173.0
13,873.0
4,056.0
2,087.0
101
0
19
15
25
1,291.0
4,046.0
29.0
3.0
..
..
111
..
255
7.6
12
231
..
..
..
..
..
..
108
24
2.2
0
3
..
..
2,787.0
118.0
..
..
549
..
..
11
26
3,215.0
1,863.0
11.0
23.0
29,949
53,045
17.8
38,939
48,082
2,290
314
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7,465
599
10.1
311
821
1,075
5,311
16,577.0
29,253.0
358.0
1,000.0
..
..
36
..
2
56
..
2
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
19.0
3,822
7
2.0
0
252
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,726
3,914
19.3
528
542
1,227
833
11,788.0
31,339.0
578.0
3,353.0
795
124
2.8
..
..
..
..
..
5,551.0
1.0
902.0
9,181
304
1.9
10
221
204
636
27,017.0
9,109.0
435.0
120.0
..
..
3
..
3
60.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
159
..
..
4
47
68
349
5,082.0
7,525.0
9.0
43.0
..
..
54
..
..
..
..
..
108.0
753.0
96
58
7.2
..
19
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,008
165
4.2
9
324
72
1,091
19,356.0
11,352.0
102.0
201.0
1,569
26,140
55.1
9
546
327
3,092
22,357.0
25,596.0
1,043.0
526.0
32,978
13,319
8.5
444
2,692
4,261
135
39,420.0
6,967.0
138.0
13,773
2,251
5.3
95
812
724
27
24,750.0
5,724.0
2,096.0
195.0
566
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,311
5
2.2
0
0
16
548
..
..
10,194
4,298
8.5
70
808
1,005
58
20,575.0
4,409.0
624.0
713.0
59,134
6,640
10.7
548
4,997
26,795
14,792
193,213.0
58,336.0
2,912.0
3,653.0
115
..
5
12.3
0
0
2
126
194.0
2,183.0
99.0
..
..
5
..
0
0.9
0
2
31.0
187.0
2.0
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
4
454
3,240.0
1.0
13.0
..
..
1
..
1
65.5
0
0
..
23.0
1,416.0
..
88.0
..
..
9,232
1,092
3.0
..
..
1,070
2,196
386.0
551.0
353
18
2.1
..
..
..
..
..
44.0
5,052
309
..
42
200
192
21
3,431.0
12,979.0
173.0
1,227.0
12
1
2.5
1
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
48
..
0
0.0
3
1
..
..
1,874.0
..
..
11,254
126,323
67.4
5,340
19,276
1,601
9,379
9,721.0
35,611.0
645.0
3,692.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
2
..
..
..
1,724.0
..
..
5,359
6,851
9.8
30
588
220
15
9,436.0
4,733.0
258.0
224.0
3,407
1,740
6.3
78
224
..
..
2,714.0
12.0
528.0
..
..
14
..
0
1.5
1
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11,881
1,906
5.3
109
2,012
2,783
6,928
22,734.0
15,242.0
1,087.0
1,107.0
..
..
3
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
52,821
14,202
7.0
1,920
4,987
2,745
177
71,312.0
8,483.0
17,562.0
753.0
1,033
60
0.8
..
..
280
293
6,893.0
3,935.0
237.0
145.0
..
..
21
..
..
..
0
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5
..
4
5.9
0
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
0
3
..
..
..
..
369
..
0
284
1
1,332.0
3,440.0
348.0
33.0
..
..
21
..
9
15.6
0
23
..
..
545.0
813.0
..
38.0
..
..
31
..
..
..
0
16
..
..
1,950.0
..
..
19,937
14,981
14.3
7,115
3,116
2,032
352
16,570.0
4,160.0
689.0
61.0
21,128
54,887
27.1
21,040
12,096
1,462
309
36,762.0
52,908.0
3,827.0
7,298.0
..
..
273
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,933.0
87.0
..
..
48
..
..
0
0
160.0
5,045.0
140.0
539
16
2.0
0
1
..
..
..
..
9,582
34,721
21.5
69
3,979
1,098
6,722
35,720.0
20,411.0
3,759.0
1,098.0
..
..
8
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
76
0
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
185
2
50
3
133
929.0
1,978.0
70.0
40.0
5,266
673
6.1
23
18
235
348
..
6,456.0
159.0
1,350.0
33,902
2,183
2.0
..
764
6,230
618
193,824.0
33,335.0
39,411.0
6,894.0
..
..
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4,625.0
..
73.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
573
8
1.8
2
20
16
1,291.0
1,753.0
..
..
7,375
73
358
2,233
1,862
45,880.0
23,731.0
5,388.0
3,405.0
..
2,181
429
2.3
..
..
5,199.0
13,578.0
97,527
68,280
21.8
18,375
13,105
13,876
8,183
114,722.0
27,425.0
8,738.0
1,292.0
..
408,985
153,187
20.0
124,454
44,392
295,327
310,244
388,504.0
157,083.0
24,430.0
20,537.0
..
809
149
9.7
33
109
357
..
..
..
..
353
202
6,457.0
5,758.0
358.0
109.0
..
..
14
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
855
..
258
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,961
..
..
560
4,668
54,965.0
27,076.0
2,060.0
1,334.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4
0.6
0
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
111
..
16
16
2,561.0
1,842.0
28.0
18.0
179
..
2
2,417.0
298
..
14
5.2
2
10
8
5
155.0
3,077.0
..
..
..
2,296,271
18.4
333,971
374,151
2,129,552
816,783
7,307,655.0
1,761,759.0
975,318.0
151,492.0
..
..
728,815
..
26.1
53,514
84,563
1,637,384
320,693
4,425,636.0
575,409.0
734,677.0
50,055.0
..
..
758,303
717,505
16.3
148,331
212,323
148,234
52,729
1,435,959.0
511,392.0
175,360.0
55,116.0
..
..
96,586
..
12.1
1,076
11,559
8,621
49,916
412,323.0
196,273.0
7,266.0
7,436.0
..
..
98,012
14,048
4.2
1,650
2,218
18,859
12,220
117,584.0
6,913.0
..
..
466,430
177,162
18.7
128,662
55,012
299,405
340,911
470,044.0
229,265.0
25,346.0
25,791.0
..
..
123,754
..
6.6
535
5,734
13,771
33,080
310,367.0
69,409.0
8,795.0
4,305.0
..
..
24,197
..
203
2,742
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,062
..
..
36
69
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
175,447
10.5
899
10,072
19,640
55,628
545,913.0
298,199.0
26,499.0
18,655.0
..
724,005
666,961
19.8
3,173
48,439
1,269,520
216,760
4,600,586.0
600,370.0
705,023.0
46,757.0
..
1,398,862
18.5
329,863
315,571
840,331
544,182
2,151,754.0
838,712.0
243,586.0
85,775.0