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World Development Indicators:
Science and technology
Research and development (R&D)
High-technology exports
Charges for the use of intellectual property
Patent applications filed
Total
full-time equivalent per million people
full-time equivalent per million people
% of GDP
$ millions
$ millions
2005-15
2005-15
2013
2005-15
2015
2015
2015
2015
2014
2014
2014
..
..
27
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
184
15
1.5
2
25
10
3
3,326
3,653
2
0.2
2
247
94
719
10,191
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
896
23
..
..
..
17
265
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
0
0.0
..
..
15
814
8,053
1,442
9.0
171
1,909
509
4,173
58,486
..
..
559
11
5.3
..
..
121
2
4,827
..
..
..
..
1
4.7
..
14
..
..
..
47,806
4,237
13.5
783
3,525
1,988
23,968
64,502
12,031
15,947
13.4
883
1,461
2,092
271
8,670
..
..
482
9
2.5
168
5,780
..
..
16
..
0
0.0
..
18
2
111
1,124
210
23
1.0
..
..
6
199
7,563
..
..
1,971
..
..
..
1
24
44
249
11,541
..
..
39
..
26
18.3
1
38
1,131
..
..
1,001
561
4.3
23
130
652
105
8,797
16,511
38,856
13.0
3,194
3,331
889
137
23,033
..
..
10
..
0
0.0
..
4
..
36
1,017
..
..
187
..
2
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
26.8
9
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
0
0
578
89
25
6.5
22
84
9
294
8,032
437
96
2.8
13
10
41
2
4,047
165
36
0.6
0
8
4
5
1,878
48,622
8,848
12.3
581
5,250
4,659
25,683
157,016
..
..
120
..
75
17.9
..
..
26
91
1,175
2,677
1,108
7.6
50
185
218
16
6,195
177
5
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
16
1
3.5
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
84
..
60
0.8
2
65
4,888
..
..
527
..
13
3.7
..
..
..
57,797
26,295
13.8
4,126
9,384
4,198
31,283
51,028
8
0
0.0
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,158
532
5.9
88
1,545
452
2,653
31,869
..
401,435
554,273
25.8
1,085
22,022
801,135
127,042
2,104,534
..
426
10.7
192
12,350
40,063
..
0
0.0
..
167
2
104
12,287
..
4,456
793
9.5
52
467
260
1,898
26,366
..
..
14
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
137
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
277
862
16.8
517
16
552
..
169
..
38
4.8
..
4,359
762
9.0
46
268
170
30
3,685
..
..
1,548
..
..
..
..
24
126
2,425
..
..
..
..
..
..
10
26
..
..
1,283
889
27
6.2
..
..
4
1,999
14,022
20,792
14.9
466
1,203
910
62
10,075
12,482
9,375
16.0
2,069
1,227
1,377
206
4,477
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
4
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39
..
186
3.8
..
89
13
245
9,738
256
97
7.2
..
72
..
..
..
9,199
88
0.8
..
214
752
1,384
19,551
..
..
35
183
4.4
29
70
..
187
7,036
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,426
1,042
11.4
11
43
44
6
2,672
802
12
4.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
84
..
3
2.3
0
4
..
..
..
..
10,157
3,633
8.7
2,400
827
1,419
126
4,552
72,555
104,340
26.8
14,974
13,962
14,500
2,033
90,674
..
..
..
..
10
11.2
..
..
..
..
..
50
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
45
..
..
..
..
468
35
5.6
1
7
110
187
4,826
101,074
185,556
16.7
14,585
8,917
48,154
17,811
70,554
583
..
..
..
..
1,366
11,370
1,141
11.0
54
291
651
19
6,836
..
..
..
..
0
12.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
34
..
..
..
..
17
361
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81
228
5.0
16
243
10
288
..
..
..
12
..
2
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
0
0.1
3
18
..
20
748
..
..
28
..
..
..
30
2
2
19
1,649
..
..
20
..
1
46
6,907
6,249
11,760
13.7
1,504
1,388
546
73
5,438
576
110
19.9
230
84
51
13
3,735
93,349
13,751
7.5
467
5,009
12,040
30,814
222,235
..
2,928
54
1,653
702
7,321
46,452
32,965
..
..
..
..
13,683
119
55,733
947
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6,874
29,060
26.8
7,457
75,114
263
58
3,537
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11,300
11,818
19.7
1,096
1,062
1,125
5,148
9,359
..
66,310
26,955
7.3
3,048
4,331
8,601
781
40,016
..
..
176
..
1
0.1
6
51
33
122
2,298
103,377
91,514
16.8
36,631
16,990
265,959
60,030
124,602
..
..
1,504
86
1.8
13
15
40
339
6,958
879
2,844
41.2
1
149
1,742
271
10,078
872
132
75
1,808
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
45
..
..
..
..
..
901
58,844
126,541
26.8
6,199
9,831
164,073
46,219
160,644
..
..
124
..
..
..
0
2
..
..
..
844
138
2.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
60
42
11.9
1
6
132
7
3,215
..
..
69
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,207
1,015
15.1
7
34
103
4
3,062
..
..
1,050
..
24
34
..
..
12
0
3
..
..
625
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
781
..
..
231
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,711
2,185
1,777
11.9
23
48
123
42
4,105
732
674
6.8
1,611
3,129
128
90
..
440
110
3.0
9
56
2,931
113
1
0.2
5
29
2,028
157
..
4
2.2
..
4
..
..
..
17,720
57,258
42.8
92
1,257
1,353
6,267
34,571
..
..
5
..
..
..
..
5
..
..
..
64
..
..
..
..
259
621
31.9
282
429
5
8
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
110
1
0.1
1
18
13,112
45,781
14.7
308
873
1,246
14,889
110,525
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
227
18
4.0
4
18
67
72
5,428
..
..
34
..
..
..
..
6
4
2,921
..
..
164
3
4.0
2
16
139
126
3,552
192
6
..
1
3
13
3,611
2,536
539
3.5
3
96
355
742
11,708
68
31
11.6
20
..
..
1,154
..
..
38
..
..
..
22
272
..
..
..
..
79
0
10
..
..
941
..
..
442
3
0.6
..
..
3,950
30,412
59,128
39,081
47,096
2,294
288
..
..
..
..
..
36
5.0
..
..
..
7,244
604
9.6
305
848
1,636
6,092
20,575
..
..
28
..
10
0.5
..
1
1
145
36
..
11
14.2
..
..
..
..
..
3,654
..
258
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9,854
4,617
20.5
510
570
1,106
457
15,475
658
204
4.1
..
..
..
..
2,378
7,772
259
1.6
15
180
146
776
25,267
..
..
4
..
2
40.7
..
..
..
..
..
158
0
0.0
6
57
13
274
8,879
..
..
44
..
..
..
..
61
48
5.7
..
19
..
..
..
..
..
648
..
195
4.7
22
292
83
1,204
25,258
916
26,192
53.1
11
613
334
3,255
25,730
28,753
13,445
8.8
415
2,431
3,941
155
16,414
13,556
1,905
4.6
89
698
722
18
19,690
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
770
137
3.4
..
..
5
477
7,608
11,164
3,536
7.5
89
809
952
84
10,491
35,542
9,677
13.8
726
5,634
24,072
16,236
61,078
91
..
8
13.0
..
5
7
1,206
..
..
4
..
0
0.4
1
99
139
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,009
..
..
1
..
0
42.3
..
0
..
3
606
..
..
7,636
276
0.8
..
..
652
135
..
296
27
3.6
..
..
..
5,169
..
45
180
202
10
6,345
15
1
7.2
1
2
..
..
..
..
15
..
0
0.4
..
..
1,267
10,659
130,989
49.3
3,302
17,285
1,303
9,009
21,505
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
2
..
..
847
4,730
6,878
10.3
26
522
211
23
4,629
3,514
1,427
6.4
58
221
1,402
..
..
4
..
0
2.8
1
5
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9,679
1,961
5.9
103
1,708
802
6,750
35,418
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
53,342
14,241
7.1
1,613
4,519
2,953
225
52,704
713
59
0.8
..
..
..
..
13
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
433
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
0
8.3
..
..
8
273
..
..
375
..
..
0
..
8
1,165
..
..
15
..
0
20
..
..
725
..
..
38
..
..
..
0
14
..
679
19,362
14,946
14.3
8,828
4,173
1,984
441
9,927
21,060
53,258
26.8
16,178
12,932
1,480
568
28,920
..
..
311
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,353
..
..
71
..
..
..
..
2,241
379
9
0.8
0
2
..
..
..
8,631
34,544
21.4
85
4,121
1,006
6,924
45,661
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
69
1
0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
160
..
..
..
..
2
184
1,475
4,207
681
6.3
22
21
142
400
5,916
30,402
2,323
2.2
..
682
4,766
331
111,627
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,283
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
474
8
1.8
4
14
5
3
2,666
7,218
1,387
7.3
85
358
2,457
2,356
27,242
..
..
1,679
..
..
24
1,447
20,321
97,332
69,417
20.8
17,541
12,427
15,196
7,844
54,525
..
412,542
154,354
19.0
124,665
39,495
285,096
293,706
341,902
..
591
266
13.8
0
42
37
639
5,836
347
..
..
..
..
345
223
5,064
..
..
7
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
1,196
..
..
382
..
..
1,848
..
..
487
3,960
38,744
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
126
..
5
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
127
..
3
4.7
..
5
29
24
4,595
117
37
5.3
..
2
14
25
2,672
210
..
10
2.9
2
20
..
..
..
..
2,184,420
18.3
318,712
358,807
1,713,099
793,310
4,886,846
..
699,400
..
25.2
48,572
78,608
1,240,338
312,922
2,750,525
720,932
713,865
16.1
137,949
209,501
145,986
51,690
787,775
85,554
11.5
1,345
12,113
7,372
53,820
472,551
..
..
80,219
..
14,624
1,442
2,122
16,912
11,145
163,234
..
470,427
180,650
18.1
128,791
48,888
289,294
324,989
392,930
104,307
..
6.9
483
5,219
12,230
31,839
263,571
..
..
20,164
130
2,356
..
..
..
..
..
3,909
..
..
3.4
36
61
..
..
..
..
..
141,887
759
9,222
18,461
52,904
501,162
..
646,082
20.7
3,531
47,607
857,919
214,657
2,941,848
..
1,400,796
1,241,215
17.9
314,386
301,917
836,702
525,691
1,428,234