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World Development Indicators:
Science and technology
Research and development (R&D)
High-technology exports
Charges for the use of intellectual property
Patent applications filed
Trademark applications filed (by count)
Industrial design applications filed (by count)
full-time equivalent per million people
full-time equivalent per million people
% of GDP
$ millions
$ millions
2010-18
2010-18
2018
2010-18
2019
2019
2019
2019
2019
2019
2019
2019
2019
..
..
112
..
..
..
0
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
180
..
17
35
4
1
6,956.0
..
..
5,231
113
525
1,358.0
324.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4
..
..
..
3
12
1,494.0
..
..
30
1
127
2
108
1,729.0
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
8,811
562
5.2
272
1,714
442
3,260
15,304.0
1,052.0
997.0
..
..
521
46
9.8
0
0
112
4
8,066.0
39.0
452.0
..
..
..
..
2
4.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
53,610
6,411
21.5
937
3,429
2,637
27,121
61,791.0
3,147.0
5,710.0
12,362
15,990
11.5
1,421
2,091
2,066
208
9,479.0
..
..
761
28
5.0
..
..
147
20
9,380.0
139.0
822.0
..
..
20
..
0
10
..
..
322
..
..
4
322
11,935.0
7.0
55.0
..
..
3,135
..
..
..
6
48
68
345
4,392.0
1,494.0
104.0
..
..
38
..
30
13.7
31
799.0
..
..
1,180
757
4.3
100
187
298
95
14,843.0
317.0
392.0
15,688
40,830
12.0
3,725
3,520
876
257
..
..
..
..
..
9
..
0
7
..
32
..
5.0
257.0
..
..
228
..
1
1.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
6.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
53
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
103
..
7
76
704
254
5.3
23
14
45
14
8,936.0
84.0
650.0
281
19
0.4
2
2,828.0
..
..
60,148
9,428
13.3
641
5,246
5,464
19,932
31,258.0
4,226.0
2,206.0
..
..
294
50
8.5
0
19
7
134
4,460.0
116.0
3,311
2,100
10.9
120
245
186
7
4,210.0
718.0
124.0
252
35
25.8
..
..
..
..
..
21
0
1.5
..
..
..
..
146
160
1.2
12
26
10,882.0
..
..
..
..
876
..
..
..
..
..
..
59,968
32,423
16.5
5,396
11,458
4,238
32,250
101,760.0
734.0
6,804.0
9
0
10
1
193.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7,122
676
7.5
45
1,757
438
2,799
14,032.0
51.0
477.0
..
528,263
715,843
30.8
6,605
34,370
1,243,568
157,093
250,624.0
691,771.0
19,846.0
..
322,039
65.6
346
16,186
47,713.0
1,481.0
3,493.0
..
..
..
..
257
38
12,884.0
18.0
216.0
..
7,195
759
9.1
93
734
422
1,735
19,569.0
331.0
337.0
..
..
3
..
1
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
149
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
67
..
31
6.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
507
1,155
17.6
6
593
16
483
6,957.0
11.0
62.0
..
..
248
142
11.2
..
..
..
..
..
4,277
954
8.3
74
336
195
16
3,950.0
316.0
767.0
..
..
969
..
..
..
..
27
88
4,317.0
21.0
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
5
26
..
..
2,414.0
..
..
1,245
93
19.9
..
..
4
1
85.0
..
15,577
37,834
20.8
688
1,506
765
48
5,195.0
837.0
237.0
13,979
9,581
12.0
3,604
1,626
1,351
228
4,567.0
113.0
239.0
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13
..
..
..
..
149.0
..
..
..
49
..
0
249
23
220
5,618.0
5.0
35.0
2,142
68
5.5
2
121
29
408
7,080.0
79.0
75.0
13,327
324
2.3
1
294
1,027
1,156
14,757.0
1,720.0
1,009.0
45
231
5.1
3
98
1
147
3,264.0
7.0
34.0
..
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,415
1
5.8
19
63
31
1
3,237.0
37.0
67.0
1,994
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
140
..
62
22.0
1
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,599
4,563
9.2
3,550
985
1,321
75
3,826.0
166.0
178.0
66,352
120,897
27.0
15,961
12,982
14,103
1,766
18,405.0
35,732.0
1,672.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
64
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
34
0
0.0
..
..
..
16
2,097.0
..
..
550
19
2.6
1
41
85
112
8,308.0
186.0
504.0
104,396
208,678
16.4
36,171
16,149
46,632
20,802
25,379.0
36,617.0
7,480.0
1,276
10
1.1
..
..
10,907
1,778
12.5
76
321
356
238
..
783.0
422.0
..
..
30
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
46
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
242
4.9
16
242
7
231
5,644.0
5.0
200.0
..
..
28
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
..
39
1.6
..
..
..
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
45
13
2.0
0
85
187
4,862.0
6,701
18,527
17.5
1,484
1,532
427
23
4,141.0
433.0
71.0
681
305
38.1
284
102
47
15
7,778.0
16.0
401.0
135,788
23,644
10.3
872
7,890
19,454
34,173
45,467.0
9,381.0
4,342.0
26,948
6,286
8.1
174
1,805
3,093
8,388
45,079.0
1,798.0
870.0
48,306
..
..
11,569
578
17,272.0
17,489.0
133.0
6,073
..
..
2
10
7,174
39,356
26.0
11,868
94,262
58
35
..
105.0
77.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12,235
12,565
23.1
1,579
1,520
1,368
6,370
17,377.0
819.0
664.0
..
71,240
32,869
7.8
4,516
5,245
9,229
898
12,015.0
30,302.0
809.0
..
..
164
..
2
3.1
14
51
3,445.0
204.0
3.0
98,793
104,042
17.0
46,853
26,267
245,372
62,597
74,495.0
22,920.0
9,256.0
2,627
71
1.4
9
27
21
290
4,076.0
71.0
47.0
2,367
2,251
29.8
3
141
15,968.0
1,247
82
4.6
63
122
294
41
7,457.0
154.0
11.0
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
87
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66,376
153,561
32.4
7,742
9,952
171,603
47,372
55,557.0
61,364.0
7,996.0
..
..
278
..
..
..
1
10
..
..
..
..
..
1,004
26
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
137
30
6.8
1
5
92
1
7,115.0
..
..
87
..
229
20.6
..
..
1,418
1,472
17.2
19
50
82
5
3,668.0
124.0
49.0
..
..
1,776
..
26
22
..
..
..
..
..
19
0
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
25
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
162
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8,661.0
120.0
872.0
2,267
2,527
12.0
34
73
90
33
3,702.0
177.0
457.0
869
789
6.6
2,635
6,123
117
359
..
..
..
493
253
4.2
11
161
..
..
..
73.0
662.0
127
3
0.4
30
3,251.0
314.0
4.0
231
..
4
7.3
..
4
..
..
23,661
86,555
51.8
1,071
6,480
24,222.0
574.0
1,330.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
90
..
..
..
..
..
422
759
29.8
610
841
5
7
196.0
11.0
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20
0
0.0
0
2
..
..
..
115.0
11.0
127
24
2.1
1
13
4
23
2,048.0
16,346
75,234
20.4
7
313
1,305
14,636
47,224.0
1,348.0
2,378.0
..
..
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
210
25
3.0
2
31
85
15
8,177.0
451.0
723.0
..
..
45
..
..
..
..
..
10
5
7,295.0
30.0
942.0
..
..
141
40
18.9
1
26
84
86
5,704.0
855.0
361.0
250
1
6
16
..
8,159.0
1.0
871.0
5,057
1,018
4.9
12
148
199
2,531
13,190.0
3,620.0
1,616.0
139
0
0
23
24
4,050.0
40.0
37.0
231
219
2.8
17
33
..
..
..
..
..
156
3
0.2
1
3
8
12
6,017.0
79.0
114.0
..
..
792
..
..
30,457
87,121
23.1
41,842
43,203
2,228
449
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7,889
573
9.9
523
931
324
5,690
32,634.0
321.0
960.0
..
..
44
24
1.1
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
55
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,602
..
85
1.5
0
253
7,317.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11,803
4,637
22.6
373
756
957
582
31,365.0
464.0
4,177.0
856
..
..
30
476
4,960.0
8.0
551.0
12,904
396
2.3
0
192
313
561
5,591.0
453.0
128.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
173
13
71
34
328
6,537.0
92.0
64
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
98
76
7.2
..
19
..
..
..
..
1,630
179
4.1
137
1,122
12,853.0
133.0
249.0
2,237
35,826
62.2
28
833
501
3,879
28,575.0
1,110.0
625.0
35,663
20,354
10.1
657
3,746
3,887
112
7,949.0
..
..
14,295
3,595
6.9
132
849
703
104
5,812.0
1,920.0
138.0
515
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,503
0
0.0
..
..
39
799
7,039.0
..
..
10,345
6,994
11.1
111
945
881
58
5,253.0
542.0
519.0
81,579
10,865
13.0
1,014
6,866
23,337
12,174
60,249.0
4,412.0
6,516.0
170
7
10.6
..
..
2,824.0
4.0
67.0
..
..
11
..
0
2.3
2
1
1,124.0
40.0
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
11
741
..
5.0
103.0
..
..
1
..
0
17.0
0
0
..
1,752.0
..
..
..
10,898
271
0.6
..
..
1,188
2,463
14,258.0
348.0
456.0
388
9
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
4,523
..
54
304
168
9
13,073.0
133.0
1,023.0
..
..
10
2
2.2
1
3
..
12
540.0
..
5.0
..
..
41
..
..
..
2,486.0
..
..
11,459
150,959
52.1
8,473
16,151
1,727
12,409
42,167.0
392.0
4,377.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
1
..
..
..
..
..
5,322
8,048
9.9
43
748
206
28
4,842.0
180.0
230.0
3,206
2,333
7.4
77
257
..
..
13
..
1
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13,009
1,833
4.9
108
1,649
567
6,347
15,788.0
976.0
908.0
..
..
9
..
..
..
9
1
..
..
..
..
..
54,537
15,070
6.9
3,418
6,839
1,288
159
9,979.0
15,728.0
447.0
1,348
..
..
356
255
3,709.0
480.0
66.0
..
..
26
..
..
..
..
..
..
4
..
5
10.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
1
9.9
..
3
396.0
..
..
..
..
398
..
..
..
238
7
3,596.0
..
..
17
..
3
12.5
0
5
..
..
..
..
34
4
0.3
0
14
..
..
..
..
..
20,421
17,555
14.6
8,247
6,845
1,802
388
4,795.0
529.0
129.0
21,379
29,879
12.9
23,906
11,919
1,369
348
55,631.0
3,334.0
9,287.0
275
..
..
..
..
121
32
4,414.0
148.0
92.0
..
..
62
..
..
0
0
1
1
5,884.0
..
..
603
..
..
..
..
12,514
40,264
23.6
197
5,312
821
7,351
34,044.0
3,541.0
1,752.0
..
..
14
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
86
1
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
211
..
..
7
39
1
112
1,678.0
20.0
4.0
5,565
841
6.9
23
21
..
33,536
4,302
3.0
88
1,932
7,871
217
33,694.0
39,239.0
6,963.0
..
..
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
673
16
33
..
..
10,380
82
606
2,097
1,755
25,118.0
4,660.0
2,964.0
3,145
477
2.2
..
..
58
1,846
13,179.0
58.0
858.0
97,681
78,176
23.5
25,257
16,936
12,061
7,189
77,935.0
21,730.0
8,166.0
..
422,808
156,074
18.9
117,401
42,732
285,113
336,340
212,484.0
22,988.0
26,860.0
..
852
117
8.3
45
121
5,279.0
354
20
0.7
0
87
374
169
7,693.0
249.0
17.0
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
639
..
..
..
..
..
4,286
90,436
40.4
..
..
720
6,800
37,872.0
2,214.0
2,173.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
376
13
0.9
0
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
137
..
..
..
60
15
1,359.0
47.0
4.0
..
..
213
..
22
2.3
0
17
2
21
3,760.0
58.0
359
..
28
5.0
..
..
..
2,554,373
21.2
390,573
429,090
2,144,825
885,152
2,105,836.0
1,063,144.0
172,379.0
..
866,663
..
36.9
71,564
99,421
1,671,876
361,625
769,827.0
791,546.0
59,081.0
794,018
831,759
16.2
191,710
250,678
138,074
49,777
572,182.0
201,126.0
60,619.0
108,228
..
14.2
1,164
11,529
8,391
45,774
198,679.0
7,498.0
7,409.0
..
..
119,302
4.7
2,261
2,884
15,802
17,410
124,012.0
25,704.0
5,809.0
..
482,867
188,499
18.5
122,797
54,190
289,351
368,590
314,244.0
23,722.0
33,664.0
154,139
..
9.9
878
8,134
20,191
35,334
59,159.0
11,808.0
4,640.0
..
..
29,479
..
3.9
200
2,254
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,308
..
..
..
25
43
..
..
..
..
..
213,355
19.3
1,132
11,051
25,782
52,756
248,576.0
28,379.0
14,508.0
..
893,169
23.4
9,593
62,391
1,300,877
241,394
752,730.0
769,100.0
50,781.0
..
1,450,446
20.6
379,823
355,606
817,723
590,877
1,074,569.0
265,112.0
106,886.0