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World Development Indicators:
Science and technology
Research and development (R&D)
High-technology exports
Charges for the use of intellectual property
Patent applications filed
Trademark applications filed (by count)
Industrial design applications filed (by count)
full-time equivalent per million people
full-time equivalent per million people
% of GDP
$ millions
$ millions
2005-16
2005-16
2016
2005-16
2017
2017
2017
2017
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
..
..
80
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
191
1
0.1
11
13
21
4
918.0
6,890.0
1.0
941.0
4,447
8
0.5
0
147
106
566
7,059.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
3
618.0
1,769.0
..
..
39
..
..
..
12
222
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8
..
0
0.4
..
4
..
12
4.0
1,714.0
..
8,648
1,448
9.0
230
2,402
884
2,925
55,739.0
15,319.0
1,115.0
538.0
..
..
521
..
26
6.8
..
..
125
1
2,356.0
6,777.0
23.0
415.0
..
..
..
..
2
5.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
51,068
4,323
12.8
924
3,413
2,620
25,774
81,399.0
53,674.0
2,739.0
4,539.0
12,366
12,943
9.8
1,293
1,787
2,078
237
14,689.0
8,541.0
701.0
1,439.0
..
..
480
..
9
2.0
..
..
144
19
2,817.0
8,767.0
22.0
618.0
..
..
14
..
..
..
..
14
3
34
425.0
981.0
211
..
..
6
171
371.0
10,844.0
23.0
67.0
..
..
2,546
..
0
25
77
267
8,580.0
3,795.0
1,359.0
97.0
..
..
48
..
32
22.7
..
..
41
202.0
892.0
3.0
1.0
..
..
937
..
601
3.8
33
157
455
66
4,652.0
14,107.0
202.0
347.0
16,394
30,704
9.5
3,513
3,609
1,054
119
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
0
0.0
..
4
..
37
..
..
..
291.0
..
..
167
..
..
..
..
..
4.0
37.0
..
..
..
..
1
21.8
0
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
40
..
..
..
0
0
1,746.0
..
95
19
5.8
24
105
12
241
3,000.0
4,923.0
40.0
23.0
509
126
2.9
12
9
60
6
797.0
9,746.0
143.0
965.0
227
50
0.9
1
16
1
6
537.0
2,734.0
105.0
53,607
9,925
12.3
642
5,212
5,200
22,810
137,878.0
28,490.0
3,400.0
2,627.0
..
..
217
..
160
29.9
..
17
..
..
108.0
2,559
2,562
7.4
53
179
230
11
14,243.0
3,923.0
648.0
277.0
222
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
0
1.8
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
117
1
13
4,099.0
..
..
670
..
29
4.7
1
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
57,356
24,220
12.9
4,458
10,928
4,078
30,667
81,540.0
72,182.0
916.0
5,254.0
8
0
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6,746
590
6.1
52
1,577
386
2,521
31,820.0
13,548.0
89.0
312.0
..
426,165
504,381
23.8
4,779
28,661
1,204,981
133,522
3,526,953.0
170,963.0
631,949.0
18,395.0
..
141,717
29.7
233
13,859
27,064.0
44,651.0
1,304.0
3,632.0
..
..
201
51
1,684.0
9,823.0
45.0
173.0
..
6,121
672
8.7
59
426
545
1,658
24,299.0
18,438.0
227.0
306.0
..
..
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
113
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
78
..
84
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
377
6
538
9
496
6,797.0
7,376.0
17.0
47.0
..
178
..
..
..
..
..
..
42.0
4,056
782
7.5
54
307
175
13
4,334.0
3,999.0
573.0
561.0
..
..
1,045
..
..
..
..
..
32
163
2,242.0
7,616.0
7.0
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
5
28
..
..
..
2,809.0
..
..
973
60
14.6
2
124
3
1
1,090.0
1,892.0
46.0
..
15,963
21,070
12.8
422
1,241
792
47
19,301.0
5,113.0
905.0
193.0
13,471
7,467
11.6
3,882
1,524
1,552
298
7,596.0
3,551.0
5.0
400.0
..
..
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
0
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
..
390
7.7
..
113
16
257
7,446.0
5,566.0
50.0
21.0
1,096
84
7.1
..
30
45
329
9,254.0
6,636.0
71.0
65.0
10,807
72
0.6
..
255
918
1,231
12,750.0
22,372.0
951.0
..
29
221
5.0
60
138
4
171
3,621.0
6,999.0
17.0
23.0
..
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,482
1,676
16.1
20
61
29
1
1,999.0
2,412.0
58.0
233.0
1,121
0
9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
155
..
4
3.1
1
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,545
3,572
7.8
3,401
1,011
1,260
108
7,516.0
2,889.0
199.0
69,431
98,689
23.5
16,458
14,840
14,206
2,012
258,090.0
16,111.0
13,675.0
1,076.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
59
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.0
47
..
..
..
..
1,165.0
..
..
579
22
2.9
0
25
96
178
2,217.0
7,208.0
120.0
535.0
103,122
167,746
13.7
20,151
12,746
48,480
19,419
190,216.0
19,767.0
46,033.0
10,155.0
982
40
4.2
..
..
14
17
900.0
4,619.0
453.0
116.0
10,725
1,196
10.4
76
347
606
40
1.0
2,361.0
912.0
201.0
..
..
26
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
34
..
..
..
0
10
..
17
18.0
617.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
85
1
195
3
266
..
..
205.0
187.0
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
..
0
0.1
18
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
..
..
..
1
..
..
33
44
3.0
..
56
10
185
2,185.0
5,363.0
15.0
22.0
6,208
13,479
13.8
1,792
1,566
616
49
9,318.0
3,919.0
856.0
138.0
652
88
13.8
256
116
35
3
1,521.0
7,553.0
49.0
265.0
110,320
14,456
7.0
660
6,515
13,199
31,858
264,662.0
48,961.0
6,753.0
3,920.0
..
7,729
3,957
5.4
50
1,851
1,101
8,538
48,756.0
14,965.0
2,581.0
1,312.0
40,975
..
..
..
..
14,930
702
177,538.0
13,224.0
15,811.0
168.0
1,227
..
..
..
..
..
..
6,834
25,728
21.4
10,949
75,172
202
85
20.0
1,999.0
122.0
59.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11,893
7,359
13.0
1,264
1,352
1,300
5,119
3,463.0
15,352.0
1,181.0
684.0
..
69,125
27,787
6.8
4,365
4,790
8,848
973
83,358.0
10,679.0
26,698.0
390.0
..
..
135
..
2
0.4
5
51
19
59
2,742.0
2,607.0
178.0
5.0
96,536
83,661
13.8
41,743
21,342
260,244
58,137
390,525.0
60,795.0
24,547.0
6,466.0
1,652
83
1.8
35
21
22
256
3,013.0
4,333.0
53.0
48.0
1,564
1,772
22.7
1
116
993
231
8,495.0
14,429.0
89.0
150.0
987
46
3.2
69
207
144
59
4,791.0
89.0
15.0
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
44
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,517.0
..
55.0
63,063
72,700
14.2
7,138
9,254
163,424
45,406
183,620.0
48,358.0
62,633.0
6,487.0
..
..
189
..
..
..
0
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
739
185
4.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
101
..
89
17.6
1
5
84
5
269.0
6,088.0
17.0
444.0
..
..
85
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,686.0
..
..
1,257
1,334
16.6
7
45
95
18
2,214.0
3,082.0
176.0
66.0
..
..
1,398
..
19
22
..
..
23
..
..
0
3
..
..
..
1,715.0
..
..
..
..
17
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,039.0
..
..
..
..
139
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
490.0
8,266.0
151.0
1,088.0
2,181
2,161
11.7
31
68
95
58
3,851.0
2,922.0
56.0
367.0
818
740
6.7
2,374
5,287
143
301
..
..
..
..
483
160
3.4
10
53
..
7,842.0
81.0
857.0
103
5
0.5
3
19
6
30
2,757.0
3,293.0
166.0
4.0
203
..
..
4
3
1
499.0
668.0
..
..
20,332
41,173
28.1
286
1,828
1,109
6,127
18,527.0
20,580.0
701.0
726.0
..
..
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
87
2
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.0
320
330
521
3
1
435.0
167.0
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
156
27
2.2
1
20
2
36
1,110.0
1,218.0
14,529
50,435
15.2
6
292
1,310
16,103
98,739.0
42,987.0
1,651.0
2,645.0
..
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
295
29
5.1
6
21
91
64
3,049.0
8,018.0
351.0
551.0
..
..
40
..
..
..
..
..
7
7
1,624.0
7,625.0
12.0
1,206.0
..
..
112
..
1
16
112
107
7,629.0
4,411.0
311.0
512.0
258
3
..
1
5
10
..
7,236.0
8.0
911.0
4,063
6
132
237
1,066
15,173.0
13,873.0
4,056.0
2,087.0
101
32
11.7
..
16
15
25
1,291.0
4,046.0
29.0
3.0
..
..
111
..
286
6.1
2
23
..
..
..
..
..
..
108
15
1.2
0
2
..
..
2,787.0
118.0
..
..
549
6
1.2
..
..
11
26
3,215.0
1,863.0
11.0
23.0
29,949
63,617
18.6
26,707
39,557
2,290
314
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7,465
530
8.6
397
917
1,075
5,311
16,577.0
29,253.0
358.0
1,000.0
..
..
36
11
0.5
..
2
56
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.0
3,822
18
1.9
..
252
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10,726
3,591
18.4
431
638
1,227
833
11,788.0
31,339.0
578.0
3,353.0
795
48
1.1
..
..
..
..
..
5,551.0
1.0
902.0
9,181
353
2.1
10
227
204
636
27,017.0
9,109.0
435.0
120.0
..
..
3
..
1
26.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
159
4
46
68
349
5,082.0
7,525.0
9.0
43.0
54
..
..
..
..
108.0
753.0
96
61
6.2
..
19
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,008
..
197
4.7
26
306
72
1,091
19,356.0
11,352.0
102.0
201.0
1,569
32,114
57.7
17
751
327
3,092
22,357.0
25,596.0
1,043.0
526.0
32,978
13,678
7.7
575
3,167
4,261
135
39,420.0
6,967.0
138.0
13,773
2,351
5.0
156
865
724
27
24,750.0
5,724.0
2,096.0
195.0
566
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1,311
..
..
16
548
..
..
10,194
5,099
9.0
72
895
1,005
58
20,575.0
4,409.0
624.0
713.0
59,134
9,174
11.5
733
5,980
26,795
14,792
193,213.0
58,336.0
2,912.0
3,653.0
115
..
..
..
2
126
194.0
2,183.0
99.0
..
..
5
..
0
1.1
2
1
31.0
187.0
2.0
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
4
454
3,240.0
1.0
13.0
..
..
1
..
0
28.8
..
0
..
23.0
1,416.0
..
88.0
..
..
9,232
..
..
..
1,070
2,196
386.0
551.0
353
9
1.1
..
..
..
..
..
44.0
5,052
366
..
50
239
192
21
3,431.0
12,979.0
173.0
1,227.0
12
63
88.5
1
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
48
..
0
0.1
..
..
1,874.0
..
..
11,254
136,161
49.2
8,276
19,828
1,601
9,379
9,721.0
35,611.0
645.0
3,692.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
3
1
..
..
..
1,724.0
..
..
5,359
8,179
10.9
27
706
220
15
9,436.0
4,733.0
258.0
224.0
3,407
1,519
6.2
62
240
..
..
2,714.0
12.0
528.0
..
..
14
..
0
1.0
1
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11,881
1,817
4.6
119
2,123
704
6,506
22,734.0
15,242.0
1,087.0
1,107.0
..
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
52,821
15,567
7.0
2,372
5,062
2,745
177
71,312.0
8,483.0
17,562.0
753.0
1,033
69
0.9
..
..
280
293
6,893.0
3,935.0
237.0
145.0
..
..
21
..
7
34.5
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5
..
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
0
0.4
..
3
..
..
..
..
369
..
1
..
..
284
1
1,332.0
3,440.0
348.0
33.0
..
..
21
..
3
7.0
0
13
..
..
545.0
813.0
..
38.0
31
..
..
0
3
..
..
1,950.0
..
..
19,937
14,973
13.2
7,537
3,542
2,032
352
16,570.0
4,160.0
689.0
61.0
21,128
24,160
11.4
22,591
12,240
1,462
309
36,762.0
52,908.0
3,827.0
7,298.0
..
..
273
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,933.0
87.0
..
..
48
..
..
..
..
0
160.0
5,045.0
140.0
539
16
2.4
0
4
..
..
..
..
9,582
101
4,281
1,098
6,722
35,720.0
20,411.0
3,759.0
1,098.0
..
..
8
..
0
7.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
76
1
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
185
..
2
54
3
133
929.0
1,978.0
70.0
40.0
5,266
603
5.2
21
17
235
348
..
6,456.0
159.0
1,350.0
33,902
3,052
2.5
9
767
6,230
618
193,824.0
33,335.0
39,411.0
6,894.0
..
..
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4,625.0
..
73.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
573
7
1.8
2
18
16
1,291.0
1,753.0
..
..
7,375
1,009
5.0
72
430
2,233
1,862
45,880.0
23,731.0
5,388.0
3,405.0
..
2,181
..
..
5,199.0
13,578.0
97,527
68,625
21.1
22,345
11,884
13,876
8,183
114,722.0
27,425.0
8,738.0
1,292.0
..
408,985
110,120
13.8
128,363
51,283
295,327
310,244
388,504.0
157,083.0
24,430.0
20,537.0
..
809
118
7.4
35
113
357
..
..
..
..
353
202
6,457.0
5,758.0
358.0
109.0
..
..
14
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
855
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2,961
..
..
560
4,668
54,965.0
27,076.0
2,060.0
1,334.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
111
..
16
16
2,561.0
1,842.0
28.0
18.0
179
36
4.5
..
2
2,417.0
298
..
4
8
5
155.0
3,077.0
..
..
..
2,296,271
16.6
353,164
390,003
2,128,574
816,361
7,307,655.0
1,761,759.0
975,318.0
151,492.0
..
728,815
25.5
63,720
92,408
1,638,485
320,693
4,425,636.0
575,409.0
734,677.0
50,055.0
758,303
657,578
13.7
152,908
211,440
148,234
52,729
1,435,959.0
511,392.0
175,360.0
55,116.0
96,586
..
11.6
1,161
11,764
8,621
49,916
412,323.0
196,273.0
7,266.0
7,436.0
..
..
98,012
..
1,675
2,468
18,859
12,220
117,584.0
6,913.0
..
466,430
134,342
12.9
132,822
62,219
299,405
340,911
470,044.0
229,265.0
25,346.0
25,791.0
123,754
..
6.5
670
6,768
13,771
33,080
310,367.0
69,409.0
8,795.0
4,305.0
..
..
24,197
..
3.9
208
2,936
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5,494
..
..
5
75
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
172,760
..
10.1
1,013
11,314
20,575
55,089
537,823.0
277,269.0
26,190.0
17,760.0
..
713,399
18.3
7,072
52,763
1,266,464
213,574
4,540,800.0
584,637.0
703,607.0
46,265.0
..
1,411,362
16.6
345,074
325,852
841,458
547,469
2,216,909.0
865,555.0
245,283.0
86,917.0