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World Development Indicators:
Decent work and productive employment
Employment to population ratio
Vulnerable employment
GDP per person employed
% ages 15 and older
% ages 15-24
% of male employment
% of female employment
% growth
1991
2016
1991
2016
1990-1992
2013-2016
1990-1992
2013-2016
1991-93
2013-16
50.4
48.0
43.6
36.7
..
..
..
..
-21.0
-3.1
56.4
42.1
39.6
21.8
..
..
4.0
3.0
34.0
38.9
20.8
20.8
..
..
-2.9
2.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
64.9
63.8
46.6
45.8
..
..
..
..
-21.9
-1.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
54.2
57.0
47.5
34.9
..
..
8.9
-1.2
48.7
52.9
23.4
23.5
..
..
-29.4
2.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
57.2
60.9
57.5
58.2
2.1
1.4
54.2
56.5
61.2
51.8
0.5
1.2
58.1
61.9
38.9
29.7
..
..
-29.3
-1.2
63.9
62.7
44.8
41.6
..
..
..
..
-4.5
-2.0
63.6
68.0
40.3
41.7
..
..
5.8
2.5
73.9
59.7
66.6
41.1
..
..
..
..
3.1
4.3
56.1
58.5
41.4
31.6
..
..
..
..
1.2
0.9
65.8
60.2
50.8
44.7
..
..
..
..
-7.7
-1.3
45.8
49.1
31.5
23.9
0.1
0.8
57.2
62.2
50.6
44.6
..
..
..
..
10.9
-2.1
71.9
71.0
66.4
40.6
..
..
..
..
0.4
2.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
63.5
65.2
41.6
27.9
..
..
5.4
2.9
62.8
70.5
47.4
48.8
0.0
2.5
36.1
34.1
18.0
9.2
..
..
-0.6
2.0
63.5
63.2
45.0
38.1
..
..
0.6
0.5
60.3
59.3
54.0
43.2
..
..
-1.5
-2.2
62.3
62.1
41.3
40.1
..
..
-1.1
-2.0
47.5
49.8
30.0
21.1
..
..
-0.8
1.3
81.0
80.9
75.7
73.5
..
..
..
..
-0.7
1.0
88.7
82.3
78.2
63.3
..
..
..
..
-3.6
-3.1
55.0
61.4
52.7
49.6
..
..
..
..
6.0
0.4
79.9
80.7
71.4
70.4
..
..
3.0
4.8
64.0
72.7
43.8
52.3
..
..
..
..
-9.0
2.6
59.5
60.8
57.4
55.9
2.1
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.9
72.7
56.9
52.6
..
..
..
..
-6.0
1.3
68.0
67.4
51.7
51.3
..
..
..
..
-7.8
-1.1
53.3
52.8
48.2
39.8
..
..
..
..
0.6
1.9
50.9
58.3
34.3
30.7
..
..
4.7
0.4
75.4
67.5
70.7
48.2
..
..
..
..
11.3
6.4
62.6
57.9
54.3
36.2
..
..
5.9
1.9
55.8
69.0
45.2
41.6
..
..
5.7
-10.4
48.8
61.8
35.6
35.1
-0.1
1.6
43.1
46.0
25.6
24.2
..
..
..
..
2.4
-1.1
69.0
68.5
42.4
41.2
..
..
..
..
-16.8
3.0
56.5
62.0
31.8
36.3
..
..
..
..
-2.7
1.5
55.1
56.1
47.9
34.8
4.2
2.0
61.0
60.7
47.3
43.9
..
..
..
..
-3.7
5.2
50.9
45.1
26.6
21.8
..
..
-9.9
-1.0
51.7
53.8
39.2
38.1
..
..
..
..
-15.5
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
52.0
56.6
37.0
31.6
..
..
2.4
-2.6
59.9
57.0
48.5
28.8
..
..
-0.1
2.0
61.8
58.3
65.1
55.2
2.1
0.2
43.6
49.0
41.4
37.6
..
..
..
..
-6.9
4.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
51.8
55.9
38.3
34.4
6.6
4.7
60.3
60.8
49.3
35.7
-0.1
-1.2
43.3
43.6
21.7
22.0
..
..
3.1
1.0
57.4
59.0
46.3
40.9
..
..
6.2
0.9
77.3
76.0
67.2
62.3
..
..
..
..
18.2
-9.0
77.9
77.8
71.2
67.5
..
..
..
..
8.1
2.0
66.8
57.6
50.1
33.6
-8.4
1.7
76.5
78.2
72.3
71.2
..
..
-1.8
5.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
53.6
50.0
41.6
32.4
..
..
..
..
1.4
3.5
59.5
53.0
48.7
41.3
4.7
0.6
50.2
49.4
32.8
27.9
1.1
0.8
49.9
45.2
27.0
19.0
..
..
..
..
-2.4
-0.1
48.8
40.1
21.8
11.3
..
..
..
..
-4.4
-0.1
54.8
54.3
37.7
35.7
..
..
..
..
0.4
-0.9
56.5
59.6
24.7
28.6
..
..
-47.7
3.2
56.4
57.7
57.9
46.5
1.7
1.1
67.5
72.6
42.9
48.5
..
..
0.4
1.3
45.8
39.4
30.9
15.4
-2.2
-0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
63.3
55.3
47.5
35.1
..
..
..
..
3.6
0.6
57.5
60.2
51.8
50.0
..
..
..
..
1.0
0.5
62.2
76.7
49.2
63.9
..
..
..
..
-2.1
-1.6
67.5
68.1
49.7
46.8
..
..
..
..
-0.5
1.2
52.6
52.7
39.9
34.5
..
..
..
..
7.0
2.1
57.9
57.8
31.4
24.1
..
..
..
..
-5.2
-0.8
56.8
61.6
48.4
45.9
..
..
1.2
1.4
48.7
51.2
39.0
25.9
0.6
0.3
73.1
71.1
57.0
68.0
-0.6
2.3
58.4
51.9
45.9
30.9
..
..
..
..
2.7
5.4
63.6
63.6
47.7
40.1
..
..
5.0
3.2
40.5
39.7
28.7
22.3
..
..
-0.5
1.8
34.1
35.7
22.1
18.3
..
..
..
..
24.7
-1.6
44.9
54.9
37.8
31.8
1.9
9.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
51.7
60.3
43.0
44.6
..
..
-0.6
0.9
45.5
42.7
33.3
16.6
2.0
0.0
62.3
56.4
42.6
27.9
..
..
..
..
4.5
-1.1
62.4
57.2
43.0
40.7
-0.3
0.2
34.1
34.8
20.2
15.4
..
..
..
..
4.9
0.1
67.5
67.7
51.6
40.3
..
..
-8.3
0.5
66.7
59.8
45.1
30.5
..
..
..
..
-3.5
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
79.4
76.1
75.7
63.6
..
..
..
..
-7.3
0.5
58.9
58.6
35.9
25.1
4.7
2.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
58.8
67.1
29.7
31.5
..
..
..
..
45.9
-3.5
60.4
58.2
42.5
40.5
..
..
-16.5
1.5
79.6
76.5
71.9
59.0
..
..
..
..
3.1
4.9
55.6
54.5
36.6
34.4
..
..
-21.6
2.7
39.4
44.0
23.8
23.5
..
..
..
..
1.7
-3.0
55.5
48.4
44.6
28.2
..
..
..
..
2.2
2.4
57.7
58.5
34.5
32.5
..
..
..
..
-40.8
-2.0
38.1
42.9
17.6
18.4
..
..
..
..
-8.5
-12.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
55.2
53.9
33.7
30.7
..
..
-21.5
2.1
51.1
55.4
51.7
23.3
2.1
1.7
38.4
40.9
19.6
16.3
..
..
-7.5
1.8
82.4
84.6
69.1
73.7
..
..
-3.2
0.5
72.0
75.6
49.7
53.5
..
..
..
..
0.6
0.3
59.9
61.3
46.4
35.3
6.4
3.0
45.5
66.1
32.3
50.4
..
..
-0.7
1.7
47.2
61.0
36.6
53.1
..
..
..
..
0.2
3.1
47.1
49.6
55.0
44.7
..
..
3.0
3.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
37.3
41.8
22.2
21.7
..
..
..
..
-1.4
1.2
53.8
55.7
41.6
32.4
0.6
2.3
56.9
59.7
50.4
43.6
-0.2
-0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
61.8
40.2
43.6
18.4
..
..
-17.9
1.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
54.4
58.5
38.1
29.2
..
..
-8.5
1.4
43.1
40.3
22.8
18.8
..
..
-38.9
2.4
43.9
44.4
35.4
27.9
..
..
..
..
-5.7
1.5
62.8
59.8
43.0
41.6
..
..
..
..
-3.8
3.4
75.5
77.2
55.4
55.6
..
..
..
..
5.4
6.2
45.5
44.5
24.5
15.8
..
..
-1.2
0.1
82.9
80.3
77.7
71.5
..
..
..
..
0.7
0.3
52.8
59.7
53.6
61.1
-0.3
1.1
49.3
47.9
31.9
33.8
..
..
..
..
-2.3
1.4
56.7
63.9
54.3
51.2
1.9
2.1
49.9
60.6
40.9
42.4
..
..
..
..
-3.7
2.6
55.6
63.0
47.8
54.8
..
..
..
..
-7.0
1.3
53.6
53.6
30.3
34.8
..
..
..
..
-1.3
-1.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
58.7
61.7
49.0
49.4
3.5
0.8
46.1
57.1
20.5
22.3
..
..
..
..
-1.6
-5.1
47.6
50.9
38.4
39.3
..
..
..
..
1.6
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
49.4
61.6
33.4
40.4
0.5
4.3
70.1
68.6
56.9
51.0
..
..
..
..
13.1
3.1
67.4
67.7
63.4
52.5
..
..
-0.4
1.6
57.2
70.6
42.4
49.1
..
..
-1.4
1.5
59.4
60.9
42.3
40.0
..
..
-1.8
3.6
54.9
53.2
33.5
28.6
4.8
1.7
58.5
51.8
50.8
24.5
1.1
-0.1
38.2
37.1
21.1
18.2
..
..
..
..
1.3
-2.1
79.0
83.9
54.3
62.4
..
..
3.3
1.1
55.2
52.1
45.5
22.1
-5.2
3.7
58.1
59.7
40.8
32.4
-13.9
-0.7
88.4
82.7
80.2
67.8
..
..
..
..
3.0
3.2
58.2
38.2
44.9
25.1
..
..
2.0
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
53.5
52.4
40.2
28.4
..
..
-1.5
1.5
49.6
51.5
23.3
12.1
..
..
-0.9
0.2
62.0
51.8
51.8
36.2
..
..
..
..
-1.8
2.1
47.8
42.9
27.6
16.7
..
..
-32.7
-1.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
63.4
64.8
40.7
42.1
..
..
..
..
-9.2
-7.7
64.0
65.7
55.3
36.4
7.0
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
57.9
53.5
45.2
24.0
..
..
-3.7
1.5
49.8
52.3
24.8
27.5
..
..
-0.6
2.3
44.9
46.2
25.7
25.9
..
..
..
..
4.5
0.1
52.2
50.7
41.4
38.8
..
..
..
..
-5.4
-0.1
41.7
39.5
18.5
12.6
..
..
-3.1
-0.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
42.9
46.9
35.0
20.9
2.9
0.3
51.2
49.1
29.7
27.3
..
..
5.2
5.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
54.5
55.9
38.7
34.4
..
..
..
..
1.8
-1.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
50.2
53.9
37.0
32.0
..
..
..
..
3.7
0.9
44.1
41.8
31.6
22.7
..
..
..
..
2.2
0.9
49.1
49.0
27.7
21.4
..
..
0.8
-1.4
37.2
39.0
23.1
16.1
..
..
..
..
0.2
-1.8
64.2
59.9
57.8
45.6
3.5
2.5
67.2
65.4
68.8
62.0
0.0
0.1
47.0
35.7
38.7
19.7
..
..
..
..
3.9
-12.7
59.4
61.2
42.4
40.2
..
..
..
..
-27.9
3.5
86.1
76.5
77.2
61.3
..
..
-2.4
3.5
77.6
70.8
69.3
44.0
8.0
1.8
60.7
39.7
52.5
13.4
..
..
..
..
7.3
3.6
70.3
75.4
57.3
57.2
..
..
..
..
-13.4
2.4
53.7
60.2
38.1
34.6
..
..
..
..
0.0
1.8
44.9
60.3
32.9
41.2
-4.8
-1.4
41.3
40.6
28.7
22.3
..
..
..
..
2.2
0.3
51.8
45.1
47.6
33.9
8.6
1.8
54.9
56.7
37.2
37.7
..
..
..
..
-10.6
5.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81.0
83.1
62.8
72.5
..
..
3.9
1.2
57.6
53.9
34.1
31.2
..
..
-11.9
-4.2
70.7
76.5
44.3
42.4
..
..
..
..
-4.9
3.1
57.4
59.6
63.5
51.3
3.4
0.7
60.7
58.9
54.3
45.9
2.1
0.7
55.3
60.1
44.6
41.5
..
..
3.6
1.4
54.1
56.5
36.4
37.6
..
..
..
..
-9.2
5.3
78.1
67.2
68.4
50.7
..
..
..
..
-0.9
-0.9
54.4
60.3
37.9
35.1
..
..
0.6
-9.3
76.7
76.7
71.2
56.5
..
..
5.8
4.9
58.6
55.7
40.9
41.3
..
..
..
..
3.3
2.8
29.6
33.0
18.3
17.6
..
..
6.4
-2.4
39.8
41.3
25.8
25.2
..
..
..
..
2.2
-16.4
64.4
69.7
45.7
49.0
..
..
0.3
0.4
69.2
78.3
47.5
63.6
..
..
-7.0
-0.9
62.4
59.2
52.3
40.0
..
..
..
..
0.0
1.7
72.1
66.7
64.3
46.7
..
..
..
..
3.5
3.9
54.4
53.7
42.8
34.2
-1.7
0.8
56.7
60.0
47.5
41.1
..
..
-0.1
-1.0
42.0
43.7
26.6
22.4
..
..
..
..
0.7
-0.1
60.5
59.1
54.6
46.8
2.1
0.8
59.0
52.9
47.6
33.7
..
..
..
..
2.4
4.8
63.6
64.3
46.5
47.1
..
..
..
..
-3.3
0.2
72.7
72.1
60.3
57.2
..
..
..
..
-5.3
1.8
59.2
55.4
45.5
35.3
..
..
..
..
0.8
3.1
66.9
62.2
59.5
41.2
..
..
..
..
-0.8
2.8
56.6
56.2
46.2
39.1
1.7
0.8