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World Development Indicators:
Labor force structure
Labor force participation rate
Labor force (ages 15 and older)
Labor force growth (%)
% ages 15 and older
% ages 15 and older
millions
% of labor force
2000
2016
2000
2016
2000
2016
2016
2007-16
86.5
86.7
14.5
19.4
5.3
10.6
17.3
4.1
73.6
65.1
51.7
47.4
1.4
1.3
42.0
0.7
74.6
67.4
11.9
15.1
8.9
11.9
18.2
1.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
80.8
80.2
74.7
75.3
6.7
11.9
50.1
3.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
75.4
73.4
48.9
47.4
16.5
19.7
40.9
0.9
66.6
70.3
48.0
51.2
1.3
1.4
46.6
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.3
70.7
54.6
59.2
9.6
12.7
46.1
1.6
68.9
66.2
48.9
54.9
3.9
4.5
46.7
1.0
70.3
69.7
57.0
63.0
3.5
5.0
48.8
2.1
81.5
82.0
69.2
69.8
0.2
0.2
47.6
2.1
86.7
87.0
34.8
43.9
0.3
0.8
21.4
4.3
87.0
79.8
26.7
32.9
47.6
65.4
29.0
1.7
75.1
70.5
63.2
62.6
0.1
0.2
49.9
0.1
65.8
70.9
53.3
58.7
4.8
5.1
49.7
0.2
61.4
59.0
43.6
47.8
4.4
5.0
45.9
0.7
81.6
81.1
40.3
52.8
0.1
0.2
39.9
3.5
81.1
73.2
63.9
68.5
2.7
4.4
49.1
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
74.2
74.2
55.6
57.6
0.2
0.4
39.8
1.8
81.6
79.8
59.2
55.0
3.6
5.0
41.1
1.5
60.9
58.8
38.6
35.3
1.5
1.4
38.7
-0.9
69.0
78.2
49.5
65.2
0.6
1.1
46.5
3.6
79.6
74.9
51.1
53.3
79.6
103.2
42.9
1.0
79.9
74.9
55.8
59.0
0.2
0.2
42.6
1.9
55.9
59.6
44.3
47.8
3.4
3.3
46.3
-0.8
88.3
75.3
68.0
58.4
4.8
6.8
44.7
2.2
83.0
77.4
84.3
80.1
2.7
4.6
52.3
2.9
81.5
71.3
43.4
49.1
0.2
0.2
41.3
2.3
80.8
88.4
76.6
80.7
5.6
9.1
49.9
2.4
82.5
81.3
70.6
71.2
6.4
10.2
46.9
2.9
72.1
70.1
58.6
60.8
16.2
19.9
47.2
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
79.0
79.9
64.2
63.4
1.6
1.9
45.3
0.6
80.7
77.7
64.5
64.7
3.1
5.4
45.7
3.4
69.9
65.8
49.3
49.7
0.1
0.1
43.6
0.5
74.2
74.3
35.5
50.4
6.1
8.8
41.2
2.2
83.2
76.4
71.0
62.0
734.9
787.1
43.8
0.2
73.6
68.3
49.6
54.2
3.4
4.0
48.8
0.9
76.1
76.0
55.9
66.1
0.2
0.4
49.1
2.7
80.5
82.6
41.7
58.6
16.8
26.0
42.8
2.2
52.0
50.1
32.4
35.8
0.1
0.2
41.5
3.0
73.3
73.5
71.2
71.4
18.5
30.6
49.8
3.3
69.9
72.1
66.0
67.5
1.3
2.1
48.6
2.8
80.5
74.0
38.6
45.0
1.6
2.3
38.1
1.2
80.9
66.3
48.4
48.1
6.2
7.8
41.0
1.8
62.9
58.0
45.3
45.6
2.0
1.8
46.3
-0.9
68.3
67.4
35.5
41.6
4.5
5.2
38.4
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
71.9
67.7
49.6
58.1
0.4
0.6
46.4
1.2
69.3
68.6
51.6
52.1
5.2
5.4
44.4
0.4
71.7
67.4
60.0
59.3
2.9
3.0
47.4
0.4
77.6
68.5
46.3
49.4
0.3
0.4
41.9
2.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81.8
79.6
47.6
54.3
3.6
5.0
41.2
2.0
83.1
81.5
52.9
55.8
5.6
8.0
41.1
1.9
72.6
73.6
19.9
22.0
20.4
30.5
23.0
1.9
79.9
78.4
45.4
46.7
2.3
2.8
41.7
1.2
64.8
62.2
51.6
55.8
0.2
0.5
39.3
4.9
88.1
87.4
74.1
75.4
1.5
..
..
..
66.6
70.6
52.6
56.5
0.7
0.7
48.5
0.0
90.4
87.8
72.7
77.0
29.0
49.7
47.3
3.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
76.0
75.6
38.5
40.8
0.3
0.4
34.6
1.7
66.2
62.2
56.2
55.0
2.6
2.7
48.0
0.0
62.9
60.4
48.6
50.7
27.5
30.3
46.9
0.4
69.2
62.0
47.9
48.0
0.1
0.1
42.7
1.0
58.1
59.2
36.6
42.5
0.3
0.7
40.0
4.3
68.8
67.7
46.7
51.1
0.4
0.7
44.3
3.4
73.8
78.7
54.6
57.7
2.2
2.0
45.6
-0.4
67.7
66.3
49.1
55.0
40.3
43.5
46.4
0.4
76.6
79.0
72.7
74.6
8.2
13.3
49.6
2.9
66.2
61.0
40.8
45.7
4.9
4.9
44.0
-0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81.4
76.9
57.6
53.2
0.1
0.1
40.5
0.5
85.6
85.0
41.1
40.6
4.1
6.6
34.0
2.5
68.0
65.5
62.7
63.0
3.2
4.6
49.1
2.4
80.7
78.0
64.4
65.4
0.5
0.8
47.1
2.8
79.6
74.6
35.5
40.6
0.3
0.3
35.2
1.5
69.6
72.4
57.6
63.5
3.2
4.9
48.0
2.5
87.9
85.9
44.4
50.8
2.5
4.2
37.8
3.9
57.9
64.6
41.1
48.0
4.2
4.7
45.7
1.0
83.0
82.3
73.7
73.2
0.2
0.2
47.1
1.1
82.6
78.9
34.0
27.4
405.5
512.8
24.7
1.0
84.7
82.0
50.6
50.8
99.0
125.4
38.2
1.4
73.7
71.5
13.9
17.1
19.0
27.2
19.2
1.1
73.5
74.0
10.5
18.5
5.6
10.2
19.9
3.4
71.4
67.8
47.6
53.2
1.8
2.3
44.9
0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
69.7
69.3
53.2
59.4
2.8
4.0
47.2
2.2
61.2
58.7
35.4
39.6
23.3
25.6
42.0
0.5
77.9
77.3
55.9
57.0
1.2
1.5
43.1
1.5
76.6
70.9
49.3
50.6
67.7
66.8
43.1
0.0
68.9
63.8
12.7
13.9
1.3
2.4
17.5
4.2
77.1
77.2
65.6
65.4
7.7
9.2
48.5
1.2
73.1
68.5
68.5
62.5
12.2
18.7
48.5
3.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
88.7
87.0
76.3
74.4
14.0
16.2
47.8
0.9
73.7
73.2
48.8
52.2
22.8
27.7
41.9
1.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81.7
84.7
44.4
48.0
1.0
2.2
28.3
6.1
73.9
75.5
55.1
48.4
2.0
2.6
40.1
0.8
81.1
79.6
79.1
76.8
2.4
3.5
49.8
2.3
64.9
67.4
48.9
55.3
1.1
1.0
50.1
-1.3
69.5
71.0
20.5
23.0
1.0
2.2
24.3
4.8
79.8
74.1
68.2
59.3
0.8
0.9
46.9
1.2
57.5
57.5
53.0
54.0
0.9
1.5
48.4
3.2
74.1
79.0
24.4
25.8
1.8
2.4
24.5
0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66.5
66.2
54.8
55.9
1.7
1.5
50.6
-0.2
66.0
63.7
41.4
52.2
0.2
0.3
45.0
3.0
65.4
67.7
40.9
42.4
0.8
1.0
38.7
0.5
89.2
89.3
84.2
83.4
7.5
12.6
48.8
3.2
79.2
81.6
75.7
72.3
4.7
7.7
48.1
3.4
78.2
77.1
44.7
50.6
9.5
15.1
38.0
3.1
71.0
81.7
37.5
42.4
0.1
0.2
27.0
2.7
66.8
82.3
35.7
60.4
3.0
6.7
43.0
5.1
70.6
66.9
29.9
42.3
0.2
0.2
38.8
2.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
73.6
67.8
30.2
31.0
0.8
1.3
31.3
3.0
79.9
73.2
40.7
45.2
0.5
0.6
39.0
1.1
82.6
79.1
38.9
44.0
40.3
57.0
36.4
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
52.0
45.9
49.9
40.0
1.4
1.3
49.2
-0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66.3
66.2
54.4
52.7
0.9
1.3
45.3
1.5
60.1
55.4
43.2
42.3
0.2
0.2
44.5
0.0
78.0
74.3
25.3
25.0
9.8
12.5
26.1
1.4
82.6
74.5
87.6
82.8
8.5
12.5
55.0
2.3
85.2
80.2
58.9
51.5
22.4
25.1
40.7
0.8
64.5
64.8
48.9
58.0
0.6
1.0
49.5
2.9
90.3
86.0
81.4
82.8
12.0
16.7
51.8
2.4
72.8
69.5
53.2
58.0
8.2
9.0
46.1
0.3
71.7
68.1
61.1
57.6
0.1
0.1
45.7
1.9
73.2
75.0
56.7
63.9
1.9
2.6
47.4
1.6
86.5
84.0
38.6
50.1
1.9
2.9
38.8
2.6
90.4
90.7
67.8
67.5
4.6
8.1
43.5
3.6
62.9
59.9
47.2
50.3
38.0
57.4
45.3
2.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.9
67.8
61.3
60.9
2.4
2.8
47.1
1.0
77.0
87.2
23.5
30.3
0.8
2.4
13.2
8.8
83.7
82.8
16.1
24.7
41.6
68.4
22.2
2.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
80.9
81.2
44.9
52.8
1.3
2.0
39.6
2.5
73.4
70.9
70.5
69.0
2.4
3.6
48.9
2.3
85.3
84.0
54.1
56.3
2.3
3.3
39.5
2.0
80.5
84.2
55.0
68.5
11.5
17.5
45.3
1.5
77.8
75.2
47.1
49.4
30.0
43.8
39.8
2.3
63.6
65.4
49.6
49.0
17.3
18.4
45.0
0.7
69.6
64.2
52.6
53.6
5.2
5.2
48.8
-0.7
59.5
51.2
34.8
33.2
1.4
1.2
42.1
-2.0
92.6
94.7
40.9
58.4
0.3
1.9
14.0
9.5
71.1
63.5
57.9
44.5
11.7
8.9
43.2
-0.7
69.6
72.1
55.4
56.9
74.2
76.2
48.6
0.0
89.1
86.4
85.5
86.1
3.9
6.1
51.5
2.8
42.6
39.0
25.1
23.8
0.0
0.0
36.5
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
74.2
75.5
37.6
41.3
0.0
0.1
36.0
2.8
75.6
79.3
16.1
22.2
6.4
13.4
16.3
4.9
71.3
69.8
33.7
45.2
2.8
5.0
41.2
4.0
66.2
62.1
46.9
46.1
3.4
3.2
44.2
-0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
64.9
58.8
63.7
57.3
1.6
2.5
50.2
1.7
78.1
77.0
51.5
60.6
2.0
3.3
45.0
3.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
67.8
68.0
52.3
52.7
2.6
2.8
45.5
0.5
63.9
61.4
51.2
52.1
1.0
1.0
46.6
-0.5
80.9
80.4
63.4
62.5
0.2
0.3
43.4
2.4
76.8
74.2
18.2
18.6
2.3
3.5
20.4
3.1
61.8
62.0
44.8
47.8
15.8
21.7
44.9
1.9
78.2
73.9
70.8
70.7
2.8
5.1
49.2
3.8
65.7
64.2
40.6
52.3
18.3
23.0
46.3
0.2
77.0
74.4
37.3
35.2
7.8
8.6
34.4
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
75.3
75.9
52.8
60.9
0.1
0.1
45.9
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
80.7
80.4
50.8
58.5
0.0
0.1
41.7
0.8
74.6
70.0
26.6
23.8
7.7
10.8
25.8
2.3
65.8
65.4
36.7
41.6
0.2
0.2
39.2
1.7
70.2
67.0
38.1
42.4
0.3
0.5
41.3
2.8
66.5
67.4
58.3
60.7
4.5
5.2
47.7
0.9
77.7
74.4
57.8
62.9
4.0
4.9
46.6
1.4
80.2
70.6
20.1
12.1
4.9
4.8
14.6
-1.4
69.5
73.0
47.1
45.5
2.1
3.4
38.7
2.6
84.2
87.3
81.7
79.5
15.6
25.4
48.9
3.2
81.4
77.5
65.8
60.7
35.1
39.0
45.7
0.1
77.6
52.6
39.6
25.1
0.3
0.3
31.8
0.9
81.0
79.3
80.4
76.1
2.3
3.4
49.3
2.4
73.3
74.2
44.3
45.1
0.0
0.0
38.5
0.6
76.3
74.1
46.4
51.0
0.6
0.7
41.8
0.2
71.6
70.8
23.4
24.4
3.2
4.1
26.5
1.3
72.6
72.2
26.3
32.5
21.4
30.7
32.3
3.4
75.3
78.2
52.1
53.5
1.8
2.6
42.0
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
76.3
74.9
64.0
66.5
8.5
15.2
47.9
3.8
64.4
63.2
50.8
47.2
23.2
20.8
47.4
-0.6
91.5
92.6
33.7
41.3
1.8
6.4
12.2
5.1
69.9
68.2
53.6
56.8
29.3
33.7
46.5
0.8
74.2
68.6
59.0
56.0
146.8
162.6
45.8
0.5
75.5
74.3
51.7
55.9
1.6
1.8
45.4
0.7
74.6
77.7
51.7
53.8
9.7
15.0
41.7
2.7
78.2
79.6
60.8
61.5
0.1
0.1
43.8
2.8
80.9
77.6
46.8
50.1
10.3
14.5
40.0
1.7
81.7
83.5
72.8
73.2
40.9
55.8
48.1
1.7
71.3
64.9
59.5
57.3
0.1
0.0
50.1
-0.9
67.3
71.4
10.5
19.2
0.6
1.2
20.9
4.7
71.4
69.5
20.4
6.2
4.2
6.3
8.1
2.6
85.1
79.8
73.5
70.1
4.5
6.8
47.8
2.8
80.5
88.9
66.8
78.2
5.1
7.9
49.2
2.3
78.4
75.3
51.2
48.9
2,768.4
3,415.4
39.3
1.1
82.0
76.9
64.9
59.5
1,116.2
1,255.9
43.3
0.6
67.5
67.1
48.7
50.9
397.7
438.6
45.3
0.6
79.7
77.4
46.6
51.5
223.2
305.3
41.0
1.6
74.4
73.9
18.7
20.6
94.6
147.4
20.5
2.3
74.0
68.7
59.0
56.5
163.0
182.6
46.0
0.6
83.2
79.5
32.3
28.6
520.2
683.0
25.5
1.3
75.2
73.8
60.9
62.8
253.6
402.6
46.7
2.9
82.3
81.1
68.2
69.2
176.6
283.5
47.0
3.0
80.5
77.5
39.4
37.0
901.2
1,195.7
31.9
1.5
79.9
75.4
59.5
55.2
1,168.1
1,337.1
42.3
0.6
70.8
68.4
50.7
52.6
522.5
599.0
44.0
0.8