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World Development Indicators:
Labor force structure
Labor force participation rate
Labor force (ages 15 and older)
Labor force growth (%)
% ages 15 and older
% ages 15 and older
millions
% of labor force
2000
2017
2000
2017
2000
2017
2000
2017
2008-17
5.3
10.9
13.6
17.3
4.4
1.4
1.3
41.1
42.0
0.8
8.9
12.1
13.5
18.3
1.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.7
12.3
49.6
50.1
3.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.5
19.9
41.1
40.9
1.0
1.3
1.4
46.6
46.6
0.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.6
12.9
43.6
46.2
1.5
3.9
4.6
43.5
46.8
0.9
3.5
5.0
47.1
48.8
1.8
0.2
0.2
47.9
47.7
1.9
0.3
0.9
21.3
21.0
3.8
47.6
66.6
22.7
29.1
1.7
0.1
0.2
48.4
49.9
0.0
4.8
5.1
48.8
49.7
0.1
4.4
5.0
43.0
46.0
0.6
0.1
0.2
32.8
40.2
3.4
2.7
4.5
45.9
49.2
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
0.4
41.5
40.1
1.7
3.6
5.1
42.3
41.2
1.5
1.5
1.4
40.3
38.7
-0.9
0.6
1.1
43.1
46.6
3.6
79.6
104.3
40.3
42.9
1.0
0.2
0.2
40.8
42.7
1.9
3.4
3.2
45.9
46.4
-1.1
4.8
7.0
45.8
44.6
2.3
2.7
4.7
52.1
52.4
2.9
0.2
0.2
38.0
41.4
2.3
5.6
9.3
51.6
49.9
2.2
6.4
10.5
46.7
47.0
2.9
16.2
20.1
45.7
47.2
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.6
1.9
46.0
45.2
0.6
3.1
5.6
45.1
45.8
3.5
0.1
0.1
43.0
43.6
0.4
6.1
9.0
33.3
41.3
2.0
734.8
786.7
45.1
43.7
0.1
3.4
4.0
41.6
49.0
0.8
0.2
0.4
45.5
49.0
2.4
16.8
26.4
35.3
42.9
2.0
0.1
0.2
38.5
41.6
3.0
18.5
31.6
50.3
49.8
3.3
1.3
2.1
48.9
48.6
2.7
1.6
2.3
32.6
38.3
1.2
6.2
8.0
35.0
41.1
1.9
2.0
1.8
44.4
46.4
-1.1
4.5
5.2
34.3
38.3
0.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.4
0.6
40.7
46.5
1.1
5.2
5.4
44.6
44.4
0.3
2.9
3.0
46.5
47.4
0.3
0.3
0.4
37.4
41.9
2.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.6
5.1
37.0
41.3
2.2
5.6
8.1
39.1
41.0
2.0
20.4
31.1
21.7
23.1
1.8
2.3
2.8
39.4
41.8
1.3
0.2
0.5
41.7
39.3
4.8
1.5
..
46.1
..
..
0.7
0.7
48.6
48.5
-0.1
0.3
0.5
38.5
41.4
2.8
29.0
51.5
45.3
47.3
3.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.3
0.4
33.2
34.7
1.5
2.6
2.7
47.6
48.1
-0.1
27.5
30.4
45.0
47.0
0.3
0.1
0.1
39.6
42.9
0.9
0.3
0.7
39.6
40.1
4.1
0.4
0.7
41.3
44.3
3.4
2.2
2.0
46.2
45.6
-0.3
40.3
43.5
43.8
46.5
0.4
8.2
13.6
48.6
49.5
2.8
4.9
4.9
38.8
44.0
-0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
0.1
40.5
40.5
0.5
4.1
6.8
34.5
33.9
2.6
3.2
4.7
48.5
49.1
2.5
0.5
0.8
46.3
47.1
2.9
0.3
0.3
31.6
35.2
1.6
3.2
5.0
46.9
48.0
2.5
2.5
4.3
34.5
37.8
3.7
4.2
4.7
44.6
45.8
1.0
0.2
0.2
47.3
47.1
1.2
405.5
520.2
27.9
24.5
1.2
99.0
127.1
37.7
38.2
1.3
19.0
27.3
15.6
19.0
1.5
5.6
10.6
12.6
20.1
3.2
1.8
2.3
40.7
44.9
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.8
4.0
44.8
47.2
2.1
23.3
25.5
38.5
42.0
0.3
1.2
1.5
42.6
43.2
1.4
67.7
66.5
40.4
43.2
-0.1
1.3
2.4
14.5
17.7
4.0
7.7
9.2
49.0
48.5
1.1
12.2
19.4
49.2
48.5
3.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.0
16.3
48.3
47.8
0.9
22.8
27.9
40.4
41.9
1.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.0
2.3
25.6
28.2
5.4
2.0
2.6
44.1
40.0
0.9
2.4
3.6
50.2
49.8
2.2
1.1
1.0
48.1
50.1
-1.6
1.0
2.2
23.5
24.4
4.9
0.8
1.0
49.6
46.7
1.3
0.9
1.5
48.5
48.4
3.0
1.8
2.4
23.1
24.6
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.7
1.5
49.5
50.6
-0.4
0.2
0.3
39.7
45.1
3.0
7.5
13.1
49.0
48.8
3.1
4.7
8.0
50.2
48.1
3.4
9.5
15.4
35.6
38.1
3.2
0.1
0.2
34.4
27.0
3.2
3.0
6.9
36.1
43.1
4.8
0.2
0.2
30.3
38.9
2.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.8
1.3
29.6
31.3
3.1
0.5
0.6
34.4
39.1
1.0
40.3
58.1
32.8
36.5
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.4
1.3
52.0
49.0
-0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.9
1.3
45.4
45.3
1.4
0.2
0.2
43.0
44.6
0.0
9.8
12.7
25.4
26.1
1.5
8.5
12.9
55.2
54.8
2.5
22.4
25.4
42.6
40.7
0.9
0.6
1.0
45.0
49.5
3.0
12.0
17.1
48.7
51.8
2.5
8.2
9.1
43.1
46.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
45.6
45.7
1.8
1.9
2.7
45.2
47.4
1.7
1.9
2.9
32.2
38.9
2.5
4.6
8.4
44.4
43.4
3.7
38.0
59.0
42.9
45.4
2.7
0.8
1.0
38.7
38.8
0.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.4
2.8
46.6
47.1
0.8
0.8
2.5
17.5
12.9
8.6
41.6
70.0
15.2
22.4
2.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.3
2.0
35.6
39.6
2.2
2.4
3.7
48.6
48.9
2.3
2.3
3.4
38.4
39.7
2.0
11.5
17.9
41.0
45.4
1.5
30.0
44.6
37.8
39.9
2.3
17.3
18.3
45.9
45.0
0.5
5.2
5.2
45.3
48.8
-0.8
1.4
1.1
39.5
42.1
-2.0
0.3
2.0
16.0
14.1
7.7
11.7
8.8
46.5
43.1
-0.6
74.2
75.6
48.5
48.6
-0.2
3.9
6.3
50.9
51.5
2.8
0.0
0.0
35.3
36.5
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.1
34.5
36.0
2.7
6.4
13.8
13.9
16.2
4.8
2.8
5.2
33.7
41.4
3.8
3.4
3.1
42.9
44.2
-0.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.6
2.5
50.4
50.1
1.8
2.0
3.3
40.2
45.0
2.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.6
2.8
45.6
45.5
0.3
1.0
1.0
46.1
46.6
-0.5
0.2
0.3
42.8
43.4
2.4
2.3
3.6
19.1
20.4
3.2
16.1
22.0
43.5
45.0
1.4
2.8
5.3
48.2
49.2
3.6
18.3
23.0
39.4
46.4
-0.1
7.8
8.7
33.1
34.5
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
0.1
42.7
46.0
1.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.0
0.1
38.3
41.8
0.7
7.7
11.1
26.5
25.7
2.4
0.2
0.2
35.8
39.4
1.6
4.5
5.3
47.7
47.7
0.9
4.0
4.9
44.3
46.6
1.2
4.9
4.8
19.9
14.4
-1.9
2.1
3.4
40.9
38.6
2.5
15.6
26.3
50.4
48.9
3.2
35.1
39.1
45.9
45.7
0.1
0.3
0.3
33.3
31.7
1.2
2.3
3.5
50.5
49.2
2.5
0.0
0.0
37.6
38.4
0.7
0.6
0.7
38.4
42.0
0.1
3.2
4.1
24.8
26.5
1.1
21.4
31.3
27.7
32.2
3.2
1.8
2.6
42.4
41.9
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.5
15.8
47.0
47.9
3.8
23.2
20.5
48.5
47.4
-0.7
1.8
6.4
12.0
12.4
3.4
29.3
33.9
45.2
46.5
0.8
146.8
163.5
45.6
45.8
0.4
1.6
1.8
43.0
45.4
0.6
9.7
15.3
42.0
41.6
2.6
0.1
0.1
42.9
43.8
2.8
10.3
14.7
36.9
40.1
1.6
42.3
57.5
48.7
48.1
1.6
0.1
0.1
47.9
50.1
-0.6
0.6
1.3
13.3
21.1
4.4
4.2
6.4
22.0
7.9
2.6
4.5
7.1
47.5
47.8
3.0
5.1
8.1
47.0
49.2
2.4
78.4
75.2
51.2
48.7
2,770.1
3,452.9
39.7
39.3
1.1
82.0
76.6
64.9
59.2
1,117.5
1,261.3
43.9
43.2
0.5
67.5
66.8
48.7
50.8
397.7
438.7
44.2
45.3
0.5
79.7
77.3
46.6
51.5
223.2
309.8
37.9
41.0
1.5
74.4
73.9
18.7
20.6
94.6
150.1
19.5
20.5
2.2
74.0
68.4
59.0
56.3
163.0
183.6
45.6
46.0
0.5
83.2
79.5
32.3
28.5
520.2
694.1
26.8
25.5
1.4
75.2
73.8
60.9
62.9
253.9
415.3
45.6
46.7
2.9
81.6
80.2
64.5
64.9
187.8
307.2
45.2
45.5
2.9
80.6
77.6
39.7
37.3
884.8
1,191.9
32.5
32.0
1.6
80.0
75.2
59.6
54.8
1,155.3
1,329.1
42.8
42.2
0.6
70.9
68.4
50.6
52.3
542.2
624.7
42.8
43.9
0.7