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World Development Indicators:
Labor force structure
Labor force participation rate
Labor force (ages 15 and older)
Labor force growth (%)
% ages 15 and older
% ages 15 and older
millions
% of labor force
2000
2017
2000
2017
2000
2017
2000
2017
2008-17
82.7
82.1
42.3
48.5
6.5
13.3
32.4
35.5
4.3
73.6
65.0
51.8
47.3
1.4
1.3
41.1
42.0
0.9
74.6
67.6
11.9
14.9
8.9
12.1
13.5
17.9
1.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
80.7
80.2
74.9
75.5
6.7
12.3
49.7
50.1
3.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
75.2
73.0
50.4
49.1
16.6
20.2
41.9
41.9
1.2
66.6
69.7
48.0
49.4
1.3
1.4
46.6
46.0
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.3
70.7
54.6
59.7
9.6
13.0
43.6
46.3
1.6
68.9
66.2
48.9
54.9
3.9
4.6
43.5
46.7
0.9
70.7
70.0
56.3
63.3
3.5
5.0
46.7
48.8
2.0
81.1
82.0
69.0
67.5
0.2
0.2
47.9
46.8
1.8
86.7
87.1
34.8
44.4
0.3
0.9
21.3
21.1
3.8
86.5
81.4
26.5
35.9
47.3
69.2
22.7
30.4
2.2
75.1
70.1
63.2
62.2
0.1
0.2
48.4
49.9
0.0
65.8
70.6
53.3
58.4
4.8
5.1
48.8
49.7
0.1
61.4
59.1
43.6
47.9
4.4
5.0
43.0
45.8
0.6
81.7
81.3
40.3
52.9
0.1
0.2
32.8
40.0
3.3
81.1
73.3
63.9
69.0
2.7
4.6
45.9
49.2
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
74.7
74.3
57.2
58.0
0.2
0.4
42.1
40.0
1.7
81.6
79.3
59.2
56.6
3.6
5.1
42.3
42.0
1.5
60.8
58.7
38.6
35.7
1.5
1.4
40.3
39.1
-0.8
69.0
78.4
49.5
65.8
0.6
1.1
43.1
46.7
3.6
78.8
74.6
50.3
54.2
78.6
105.0
40.1
43.4
1.2
79.9
72.0
55.8
58.4
0.2
0.2
40.8
43.3
1.7
55.9
61.7
44.3
49.6
3.4
3.4
45.9
46.4
-0.7
88.4
75.2
68.0
58.6
4.8
7.0
45.8
44.8
2.4
83.0
77.6
84.3
80.3
2.7
4.7
52.1
52.3
2.9
78.4
73.1
50.8
64.7
0.2
0.3
42.7
47.4
2.6
80.8
87.3
76.6
75.1
5.6
8.9
51.6
48.4
1.7
86.2
81.5
78.0
71.4
6.9
10.5
48.1
46.9
2.4
72.1
70.0
58.6
61.0
16.2
20.2
45.7
47.3
0.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
79.7
79.8
65.9
64.8
1.6
1.9
46.5
45.9
0.6
80.4
77.9
64.1
64.7
3.1
5.6
45.0
45.6
3.6
70.1
65.7
49.4
49.9
0.1
0.1
43.0
43.8
0.4
75.8
74.2
38.3
50.9
6.3
9.0
34.6
41.5
1.7
83.2
76.3
71.0
61.8
734.8
789.9
45.1
43.7
0.2
73.6
68.1
49.6
54.3
3.4
4.0
41.6
49.1
0.9
76.1
76.6
55.9
65.7
0.2
0.4
45.5
48.7
2.4
83.6
82.1
54.0
58.6
18.9
26.3
40.5
43.0
2.3
51.7
50.6
31.8
37.2
0.1
0.2
38.2
42.2
3.1
72.7
66.7
70.6
61.1
18.4
27.9
50.2
48.4
2.5
69.8
71.7
66.1
67.0
1.3
2.1
49.0
48.5
2.6
80.5
74.8
38.6
45.4
1.6
2.3
32.6
38.1
1.2
80.9
66.1
48.4
48.2
6.2
8.0
35.0
41.2
1.9
62.9
58.6
45.3
45.8
2.0
1.8
44.4
46.2
-0.7
68.2
67.4
36.2
40.2
4.6
5.2
34.8
37.6
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.0
67.4
49.6
57.3
0.4
0.6
40.7
46.2
1.0
69.3
68.8
51.6
52.5
5.2
5.4
44.6
44.5
0.4
71.7
66.0
60.0
58.1
2.9
3.0
46.5
47.4
0.1
78.0
71.1
47.2
54.7
0.3
0.4
37.7
43.5
2.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
75.0
77.6
38.3
50.7
3.1
4.9
34.0
40.2
2.7
83.7
82.0
51.4
56.6
5.6
8.2
38.3
41.3
2.2
72.6
73.2
19.9
22.7
20.5
31.2
21.7
23.6
1.9
79.9
78.8
45.4
45.9
2.3
2.8
39.4
41.2
1.2
66.4
67.1
50.4
55.1
0.2
0.5
40.5
37.1
4.7
87.5
87.1
71.8
74.1
1.5
..
45.4
..
..
66.6
71.2
52.6
57.1
0.7
0.7
48.6
48.5
0.0
67.1
65.6
33.2
41.1
0.3
0.5
36.3
41.0
3.1
89.8
86.5
71.1
74.1
28.6
50.1
44.8
46.7
3.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
77.7
76.3
36.7
38.0
0.3
0.4
31.7
32.8
0.5
66.2
62.5
56.2
55.2
2.6
2.7
47.6
48.0
-0.1
62.9
60.3
48.6
50.4
27.5
30.4
45.0
46.8
0.3
69.2
61.6
47.9
47.7
0.1
0.1
39.6
42.8
0.9
57.1
60.1
34.9
43.0
0.3
0.7
38.9
40.0
4.2
68.8
67.7
46.7
51.6
0.4
0.7
41.3
44.5
3.4
73.8
78.6
54.6
57.7
2.0
2.0
46.2
45.7
0.2
67.7
66.3
49.1
55.2
40.3
43.6
43.8
46.5
0.4
76.6
71.5
72.7
63.7
8.2
12.0
48.6
48.1
2.2
66.2
61.1
40.8
45.4
4.9
4.9
38.8
43.8
-0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81.3
76.8
57.6
53.0
0.1
0.1
40.5
40.4
0.5
85.4
85.0
41.0
41.1
4.1
6.8
34.5
34.2
3.2
68.0
65.2
62.7
64.0
3.2
4.7
48.6
49.5
2.5
80.6
78.9
64.4
67.2
0.5
0.8
46.3
47.4
2.9
79.6
73.6
35.5
41.0
0.3
0.3
31.6
35.6
1.5
69.6
72.5
57.6
63.0
3.2
5.0
46.9
47.7
2.4
88.2
83.7
44.8
47.1
2.5
4.1
34.7
36.6
3.4
57.9
65.3
41.1
48.3
4.2
4.7
44.6
45.5
1.1
83.0
80.9
73.7
72.3
0.2
0.2
47.3
47.2
1.1
83.0
78.7
30.4
23.8
395.1
503.4
25.6
22.2
1.1
83.6
82.1
51.1
52.2
98.6
128.8
38.2
38.8
1.6
73.7
71.4
13.9
17.0
19.0
27.4
15.6
19.1
1.5
75.5
72.6
9.7
12.3
5.7
9.7
11.5
14.4
3.4
75.3
68.6
50.1
55.4
1.9
2.3
40.6
45.5
-0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
69.7
69.2
53.2
59.2
2.8
4.0
44.8
47.1
2.1
61.2
58.8
35.4
40.1
23.3
25.7
38.5
42.2
0.4
76.8
73.8
56.8
60.2
1.2
1.5
43.4
45.6
1.5
76.6
71.0
49.3
51.4
67.7
67.2
40.4
43.5
0.0
68.9
64.1
12.7
14.1
1.3
2.5
14.5
17.7
4.1
77.1
77.2
65.6
65.3
7.6
9.2
49.0
48.5
1.1
73.1
69.1
68.5
63.6
12.2
19.6
49.2
48.7
3.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
89.0
87.3
76.3
74.4
14.0
16.3
48.2
47.7
0.9
73.7
73.2
48.8
52.7
22.8
28.0
40.4
42.1
1.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
82.4
85.5
49.6
57.7
1.0
2.4
27.6
32.0
6.0
73.9
75.7
55.2
48.3
2.0
2.6
44.1
40.0
0.9
81.1
79.6
79.1
76.7
2.4
3.6
50.2
49.7
2.2
64.9
68.3
48.9
55.6
1.1
1.0
48.1
49.9
-1.5
69.6
70.8
20.4
23.4
1.0
2.2
23.5
24.7
4.9
79.8
74.6
68.2
59.8
0.8
1.0
49.6
46.9
1.4
57.6
57.6
52.9
54.7
0.9
1.5
48.4
48.7
3.1
74.0
78.9
19.7
25.7
1.7
2.4
19.5
24.5
1.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66.5
66.6
54.8
56.2
1.7
1.5
49.5
50.6
-0.3
66.0
63.0
41.4
53.5
0.2
0.3
39.7
45.9
3.1
89.1
89.2
84.1
83.5
7.5
13.0
49.0
48.9
3.1
79.2
81.8
75.7
72.8
4.7
8.1
50.2
48.2
3.5
78.2
77.2
44.7
50.7
9.5
15.4
35.7
38.0
3.2
71.0
81.7
37.5
41.8
0.1
0.2
34.4
26.7
4.0
80.3
80.9
60.4
61.4
4.1
6.9
44.2
43.8
2.9
70.6
66.4
30.2
43.3
0.2
0.2
30.5
39.5
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.6
63.3
29.8
29.1
0.8
1.2
29.6
31.4
3.0
78.9
72.3
39.7
45.0
0.5
0.6
34.2
39.2
1.0
82.6
79.0
38.9
43.7
40.3
57.9
32.8
36.2
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
52.3
45.8
50.2
39.3
1.4
1.3
52.0
48.9
-0.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66.2
66.8
54.3
53.3
0.9
1.3
45.4
45.4
1.5
60.1
58.4
43.2
43.7
0.2
0.3
43.0
44.0
0.5
77.5
70.5
24.9
21.5
9.7
11.8
25.3
24.2
0.6
82.6
79.7
87.6
77.8
8.5
12.9
55.2
51.7
2.4
85.6
77.6
59.2
47.9
22.5
24.3
42.6
39.8
0.4
64.5
65.6
48.9
55.7
0.6
1.0
45.0
48.2
3.0
90.3
84.5
81.4
81.7
12.0
16.8
48.7
51.8
2.4
72.8
69.2
53.2
58.1
8.2
9.1
43.1
46.2
0.2
71.6
68.0
61.1
57.4
0.1
0.1
45.7
45.7
1.8
73.2
75.8
56.7
64.6
1.9
2.7
45.2
47.4
1.8
86.5
83.7
38.6
50.4
1.9
2.9
32.2
39.1
2.5
90.7
90.5
68.7
67.4
4.7
8.4
44.7
43.4
3.7
62.6
59.9
47.5
50.5
38.0
59.0
43.1
45.4
2.7
65.5
67.7
40.9
42.7
0.8
1.0
38.7
38.9
0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.8
66.9
61.2
60.3
2.4
2.8
46.6
47.1
0.7
77.1
88.2
23.2
31.0
0.8
2.6
17.3
13.1
8.8
83.7
81.4
16.1
23.7
41.6
68.3
15.2
21.8
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
80.9
80.6
44.9
52.5
1.3
2.0
35.6
39.7
2.2
73.4
47.8
70.5
46.3
2.4
2.5
48.6
48.8
1.2
86.4
84.1
52.5
56.6
2.3
3.4
37.4
39.6
2.1
80.5
84.5
55.0
69.7
11.5
18.0
41.0
45.6
1.6
77.3
74.1
47.7
45.5
30.0
42.8
38.3
38.2
1.8
63.6
65.9
49.6
49.2
17.3
18.5
45.9
44.9
0.6
69.6
64.7
52.7
54.2
5.3
5.3
45.3
48.9
-0.6
59.5
51.4
34.8
32.3
1.4
1.1
39.5
41.2
-2.1
92.5
94.6
41.2
58.1
0.3
2.0
16.1
14.1
7.7
71.1
64.5
57.9
46.0
11.7
9.1
46.5
43.6
-0.3
69.1
70.9
54.7
55.3
73.5
74.3
48.3
48.3
-0.3
86.9
83.7
84.5
84.2
3.8
6.1
51.2
51.8
2.7
42.6
38.7
25.0
23.7
0.0
0.0
35.2
36.6
0.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
74.9
76.3
38.8
43.3
0.0
0.1
35.0
36.8
2.8
75.6
79.0
16.1
23.3
6.4
13.9
13.9
16.9
4.8
70.9
58.6
32.8
35.1
2.8
4.2
33.2
39.4
2.2
66.1
62.5
46.9
47.0
3.4
3.2
43.0
44.5
-0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
64.9
58.6
63.8
57.9
1.6
2.5
50.4
50.5
1.9
78.1
76.6
51.5
60.7
2.0
3.3
40.2
45.1
2.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
67.8
67.7
52.3
52.8
2.6
2.8
45.6
45.7
0.3
63.9
63.3
51.2
53.7
1.0
1.0
46.1
46.6
-0.1
80.8
80.3
63.3
62.5
0.2
0.3
42.8
43.4
2.4
76.7
74.3
18.5
19.1
2.3
3.7
19.4
20.8
3.2
63.7
62.7
49.0
48.9
17.0
22.4
45.0
45.3
1.6
78.0
74.4
70.4
71.6
2.7
5.4
48.1
49.4
3.7
65.7
63.8
40.6
51.9
18.3
22.9
39.4
46.2
-0.1
77.0
72.4
37.3
35.0
7.8
8.6
33.1
34.9
0.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
75.3
75.3
52.8
60.0
0.1
0.1
42.7
45.8
1.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
80.3
79.4
50.3
57.2
0.0
0.1
38.2
41.5
0.6
74.6
70.4
26.6
24.6
7.7
11.3
26.5
26.4
2.6
66.7
64.4
34.1
39.1
0.2
0.2
33.8
38.1
1.5
66.5
67.6
58.3
61.0
4.5
5.3
47.7
47.6
1.0
77.7
74.3
57.8
62.6
4.0
4.9
44.3
46.5
1.2
80.2
70.7
20.1
12.2
4.9
4.8
19.9
14.7
-1.8
54.8
59.5
30.0
27.9
1.5
2.5
35.8
32.2
2.6
89.6
87.3
84.4
79.6
16.3
26.3
49.7
48.9
2.7
81.4
76.4
65.9
59.8
35.1
38.7
45.9
45.7
-0.1
77.5
52.8
39.6
25.2
0.3
0.3
33.3
31.8
1.3
80.8
79.3
80.0
76.3
2.3
3.5
50.5
49.4
2.5
73.4
74.2
44.2
45.3
0.0
0.0
37.5
38.5
0.7
76.3
71.8
46.4
50.5
0.6
0.7
38.4
42.4
-0.1
71.2
70.1
23.2
24.2
3.2
4.1
24.7
26.6
1.3
72.6
72.7
26.3
33.6
21.4
31.9
27.7
32.8
3.4
75.3
78.3
51.8
52.9
1.8
2.6
42.2
41.7
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
76.3
75.0
64.0
67.0
8.5
15.9
47.0
48.1
3.8
64.4
63.0
50.8
46.9
23.2
20.5
48.5
47.4
-0.7
91.5
93.5
33.7
51.3
1.8
6.7
12.0
14.8
3.8
69.9
67.8
53.6
57.0
29.3
33.9
45.2
46.7
0.7
74.2
68.5
59.0
56.3
146.8
164.2
45.6
46.0
0.5
74.9
73.7
51.4
55.6
1.6
1.8
43.1
45.4
0.4
74.6
77.8
51.8
53.4
9.7
15.3
42.0
41.5
2.6
78.2
79.5
60.7
61.5
0.1
0.1
42.9
43.8
2.8
81.1
77.3
47.7
47.7
10.4
14.4
37.3
38.9
1.4
81.2
82.6
72.1
72.7
42.0
57.0
48.6
48.2
1.6
71.0
64.0
58.6
55.8
0.1
0.1
47.6
49.7
-0.6
70.7
70.8
13.1
19.0
0.6
1.3
15.4
20.8
4.8
71.4
70.7
20.4
6.1
4.2
6.5
22.0
7.9
2.8
85.3
79.9
73.8
70.7
4.5
7.1
47.6
47.9
3.0
87.2
88.9
72.0
78.4
5.6
8.1
46.9
49.2
2.4
78.5
75.0
50.8
48.1
2,762.9
3,432.0
39.5
39.1
1.1
81.9
76.6
65.0
59.3
1,116.9
1,261.8
43.9
43.3
0.5
67.4
66.9
48.5
50.7
396.3
438.3
44.1
45.2
0.5
79.6
77.1
47.3
51.7
224.4
309.8
38.3
41.2
1.6
74.5
73.5
18.6
20.2
94.5
149.0
19.4
20.3
2.3
74.0
68.6
59.0
56.8
163.0
184.4
45.6
46.1
0.5
83.4
79.3
29.8
26.5
510.7
680.2
25.3
24.2
1.5
75.9
73.0
61.9
61.5
256.9
408.4
45.7
46.4
2.8
82.0
78.8
65.9
64.1
190.1
302.4
45.6
45.7
2.7
80.7
77.2
38.1
35.5
873.8
1,170.2
31.6
31.1
1.6
79.9
75.3
59.7
54.9
1,156.2
1,331.0
42.8
42.2
0.6
71.0
68.6
50.7
52.8
542.7
628.3
42.8
44.0
0.7