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World Development Indicators:
Labor force structure
Labor force participation rate
Labor force (ages 15 and older)
Labor force growth (%)
% ages 15 and older
% ages 15 and older
millions
% of labor force
2000
2019
2000
2019
2000
2019
2000
2019
2010-19
78.7
74.5
14.9
21.8
5.1
10.7
15.1
21.6
4.4
72.6
68.0
52.2
52.5
1.3
1.4
41.7
43.0
1.6
74.7
67.8
11.9
17.0
8.9
12.7
13.5
19.9
1.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
79.5
78.8
75.6
76.1
6.7
13.2
49.0
50.3
3.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
75.0
72.7
49.8
51.3
16.3
20.9
42.2
43.3
1.5
62.4
64.9
45.2
42.9
1.2
1.2
46.7
44.2
-0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.3
71.2
54.6
60.8
9.6
13.5
43.6
46.6
1.6
68.9
66.7
48.9
55.2
3.9
4.6
43.5
46.4
0.9
82.2
69.9
72.6
63.3
4.3
5.1
49.2
48.6
1.4
81.1
81.6
69.2
70.1
0.2
0.2
48.0
48.2
1.8
86.7
87.3
34.8
45.3
0.3
1.0
21.3
20.1
3.5
86.6
81.5
26.8
36.4
46.4
70.2
22.5
30.5
2.3
74.6
69.2
62.7
61.8
0.1
0.2
48.4
49.3
0.2
65.9
71.7
53.3
57.6
4.8
5.0
48.8
49.0
-0.2
61.4
59.0
43.6
49.0
4.4
5.1
43.0
46.2
0.6
81.7
80.9
40.3
50.0
0.1
0.2
32.8
38.8
3.4
81.1
72.8
63.9
68.8
2.7
4.8
45.9
49.2
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
77.5
73.9
62.0
59.5
0.2
0.4
43.0
40.8
1.9
82.1
80.6
59.5
63.7
3.7
5.8
42.1
44.3
2.2
59.1
58.0
35.0
37.4
1.4
1.3
38.6
40.6
-0.8
68.2
76.4
49.7
65.3
0.6
1.1
45.0
48.9
3.6
78.6
74.3
50.2
55.1
78.5
107.5
40.0
43.9
1.3
79.9
72.7
55.9
56.1
0.2
0.2
40.8
41.6
1.4
55.9
63.6
44.3
50.4
3.4
3.4
45.9
46.1
-0.1
88.3
74.7
68.0
58.5
4.8
7.5
45.8
44.7
2.6
82.8
77.9
84.3
80.5
2.7
5.0
52.2
51.9
3.2
76.3
67.3
44.1
53.4
0.1
0.2
40.1
44.2
2.2
81.0
87.7
76.8
76.9
5.6
9.3
51.6
48.9
1.5
86.3
81.0
78.5
71.3
7.0
11.4
48.3
47.1
3.0
72.1
70.1
58.7
61.1
16.2
20.7
45.7
47.2
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
80.2
79.4
65.3
64.5
1.5
1.9
46.3
45.8
0.8
80.6
77.3
64.4
64.0
3.1
6.0
45.1
45.6
3.5
70.0
65.9
49.2
51.7
0.1
0.1
43.1
44.7
0.7
75.5
73.4
38.3
51.8
6.3
9.5
35.0
42.4
1.9
83.4
75.7
71.1
60.6
734.7
784.0
45.1
43.6
0.1
73.6
67.5
49.6
53.7
3.4
3.9
41.6
49.3
0.8
76.1
76.1
55.9
64.2
0.2
0.4
45.5
48.3
1.6
83.2
80.1
53.6
56.2
18.1
26.4
41.1
42.7
1.8
51.7
56.6
32.2
34.4
0.1
0.2
38.5
37.7
3.1
72.7
66.2
70.6
61.0
18.4
29.8
50.2
48.5
2.9
70.3
71.2
66.2
67.6
1.2
2.2
49.9
49.1
2.5
80.5
77.2
38.7
51.9
1.6
2.6
32.6
40.5
2.2
80.8
62.6
47.8
44.6
6.0
8.0
34.7
41.0
1.8
62.8
58.2
45.3
45.4
2.0
1.8
44.4
46.2
-0.8
68.3
66.3
35.3
41.0
4.5
5.1
34.6
38.8
0.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
71.9
69.5
49.6
58.1
0.4
0.6
40.7
45.8
0.9
69.3
68.6
51.6
52.8
5.2
5.4
44.5
44.7
0.4
71.7
66.7
60.0
57.9
2.9
3.0
46.5
47.1
0.5
77.7
68.6
46.6
50.7
0.3
0.4
37.4
39.9
2.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
78.8
79.9
40.4
54.3
3.3
5.2
34.1
40.9
3.2
83.7
80.7
51.5
55.2
5.6
8.5
38.3
41.0
2.6
72.6
71.2
19.9
18.5
20.0
29.8
21.7
20.6
0.9
79.8
75.7
45.4
45.4
2.3
2.8
39.5
42.0
1.1
66.4
67.0
50.9
54.8
0.2
0.5
40.6
36.7
4.3
87.5
86.3
70.3
71.8
1.0
1.6
45.3
46.0
0.9
66.6
70.5
52.6
57.5
0.7
0.7
48.6
48.5
0.3
58.5
56.6
44.0
48.6
0.3
0.4
46.4
48.0
1.6
89.8
85.4
71.1
73.3
28.5
53.0
44.8
46.6
3.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
77.7
76.5
36.7
38.2
0.3
0.4
31.7
32.9
-0.4
66.2
63.0
56.2
55.7
2.6
2.7
47.6
48.0
0.3
62.9
59.7
48.5
50.7
27.4
30.3
45.6
48.1
0.2
69.1
60.8
48.0
47.5
0.1
0.1
39.7
43.4
0.5
57.9
62.1
36.5
43.3
0.3
0.7
39.5
40.0
4.0
69.8
67.8
47.2
51.1
0.4
0.8
41.0
44.0
3.3
73.5
73.2
54.9
55.2
2.0
1.9
46.5
46.4
-0.9
67.7
67.1
49.0
55.6
40.3
43.9
43.7
46.3
0.5
76.7
71.7
72.8
63.9
8.3
12.9
48.7
46.7
2.3
66.2
60.3
40.9
44.5
4.9
4.8
38.8
43.8
-0.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
80.3
75.7
57.4
52.3
0.1
0.1
40.8
40.7
0.7
85.4
86.3
40.8
40.5
4.0
6.9
34.4
33.5
2.9
65.6
59.9
62.7
62.7
2.8
4.4
53.3
54.5
2.8
80.8
78.8
64.7
65.9
0.5
0.8
47.3
47.7
2.8
79.7
66.8
35.4
42.8
0.3
0.3
31.2
39.2
1.0
69.5
72.8
57.5
63.7
3.2
5.2
47.0
48.0
2.3
88.2
86.1
44.8
52.3
2.5
4.6
34.7
38.3
3.6
57.9
66.3
41.1
48.5
4.2
4.8
44.6
45.2
1.1
83.0
78.5
73.7
70.2
0.2
0.2
47.3
47.2
1.5
83.0
75.9
30.4
20.8
396.8
494.7
25.6
20.3
0.7
83.6
82.2
51.1
53.8
98.6
135.8
38.2
39.5
1.8
73.6
72.4
13.9
17.6
19.2
28.2
15.4
19.4
1.8
75.5
74.3
9.7
11.5
5.7
10.5
11.5
13.4
4.0
75.4
68.8
50.1
56.3
1.9
2.4
40.7
45.8
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
69.7
68.0
53.2
59.6
2.8
4.2
44.8
47.6
1.9
61.2
59.1
35.3
41.0
23.3
26.0
38.6
42.7
0.7
76.0
73.2
58.1
60.3
1.2
1.5
44.1
45.9
1.6
76.6
71.7
49.3
53.6
67.7
68.8
40.4
44.3
0.4
68.9
63.9
12.7
14.6
1.3
2.6
14.5
18.3
3.7
77.4
75.6
66.0
62.8
7.7
9.1
49.1
48.0
0.4
73.5
76.5
68.7
72.0
12.4
23.7
49.2
49.3
3.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
89.5
88.3
75.8
73.6
14.0
16.6
47.9
47.1
0.8
73.7
72.8
48.8
53.8
22.8
28.5
40.4
42.6
1.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
82.9
87.6
42.9
49.8
1.0
2.4
24.7
25.1
4.7
74.2
74.5
55.5
44.1
2.1
2.6
44.1
38.5
0.5
81.1
79.8
79.1
76.5
2.4
3.8
50.3
49.1
2.2
64.9
68.3
48.9
55.8
1.1
1.0
48.1
50.0
-0.9
71.7
72.2
21.5
23.1
1.2
2.4
23.7
24.5
3.9
80.4
75.8
67.7
60.4
0.9
1.0
49.1
45.4
1.1
79.5
80.3
69.4
72.0
1.2
2.2
47.3
47.5
3.2
59.3
65.3
28.8
34.0
1.6
2.4
30.8
34.1
1.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66.4
67.7
54.8
57.3
1.7
1.5
49.5
50.5
-0.3
66.0
65.1
41.4
54.6
0.2
0.3
39.7
45.2
3.1
89.2
88.7
84.1
83.2
7.5
13.8
49.0
48.9
2.9
80.0
80.4
75.9
72.5
4.7
8.0
49.8
48.9
3.2
78.2
77.4
44.7
51.3
9.5
15.8
35.7
38.6
2.8
71.0
84.6
37.4
41.6
0.1
0.3
34.4
20.2
6.9
79.9
81.1
60.0
57.8
4.1
7.2
44.2
42.2
2.7
70.6
67.4
29.9
48.4
0.2
0.2
30.5
41.9
3.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.1
62.8
29.8
28.1
0.7
1.2
30.2
31.1
3.0
78.9
71.2
39.7
45.0
0.5
0.6
34.2
39.6
0.7
82.5
78.5
38.9
45.6
39.0
57.8
33.6
38.5
1.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
56.2
45.2
51.8
38.2
1.2
0.9
51.0
48.6
-0.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66.2
71.0
54.4
55.3
0.9
1.4
45.5
45.1
2.0
56.8
63.6
42.1
47.8
0.2
0.3
43.8
44.0
1.7
77.1
70.1
24.8
21.6
9.6
12.1
25.3
24.3
0.5
82.7
78.8
87.6
77.4
8.4
13.2
55.2
52.3
2.5
86.6
76.1
59.7
46.2
22.9
24.2
43.1
40.2
0.1
62.7
63.4
48.0
55.8
0.6
0.9
46.2
49.2
2.3
90.4
83.7
81.4
81.5
12.1
16.6
48.6
55.8
1.6
72.8
69.6
53.2
59.0
8.2
9.4
43.1
46.4
0.7
73.3
68.6
61.9
57.8
0.1
0.1
45.6
45.6
1.6
73.2
74.6
56.7
64.9
1.9
2.8
45.2
47.9
2.0
86.5
84.7
38.5
49.7
1.9
3.1
32.2
38.5
2.2
90.2
83.7
68.9
60.8
4.6
8.4
45.1
42.5
2.8
64.9
63.1
55.3
48.5
41.4
63.2
45.9
43.1
1.9
65.5
66.2
40.9
44.9
0.8
1.0
38.6
40.7
0.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.8
67.5
61.2
60.6
2.4
2.8
46.6
47.0
0.9
77.2
83.6
23.3
36.0
0.8
2.7
17.3
15.4
7.2
83.8
81.9
16.1
21.7
42.2
73.9
15.2
20.1
2.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
80.9
79.9
44.9
54.9
1.3
2.1
35.6
41.0
2.7
73.4
47.6
70.6
46.4
2.5
2.7
48.6
48.7
2.2
86.4
85.0
52.5
60.0
2.3
3.6
37.3
40.7
2.5
80.3
85.3
54.9
70.6
11.7
18.9
41.4
45.8
1.8
77.3
73.1
47.7
47.0
30.0
45.1
38.3
39.4
1.7
63.6
65.9
49.6
48.6
17.3
18.3
45.9
44.5
0.2
69.7
64.5
52.7
54.7
5.3
5.3
45.4
49.2
-0.4
59.4
48.1
34.7
32.5
1.3
1.1
39.6
43.6
-2.4
92.4
94.8
41.3
56.6
0.3
2.1
16.1
13.6
4.5
71.2
65.4
58.0
45.6
11.8
9.0
46.5
42.9
-0.4
69.0
69.8
54.6
54.6
73.3
72.7
48.3
48.6
-0.5
87.0
83.2
84.5
83.9
3.8
6.4
51.1
51.7
2.8
57.6
55.5
32.8
31.1
0.0
0.1
34.5
34.4
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
72.8
74.1
38.6
41.6
0.0
0.1
35.9
36.3
2.0
75.6
78.4
16.1
22.1
6.4
14.4
14.0
15.8
4.2
71.0
57.4
33.4
35.1
2.8
4.3
33.8
40.5
2.2
67.3
63.0
48.2
47.9
3.4
3.2
43.1
44.7
0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
65.2
58.3
63.1
57.5
1.6
2.7
49.8
49.9
2.1
79.2
78.3
52.2
61.9
2.2
3.5
38.6
41.7
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
67.8
67.5
52.3
52.3
2.6
2.7
45.6
45.4
0.3
64.0
62.8
51.2
53.3
1.0
1.0
46.0
46.4
-0.2
85.5
85.6
82.4
82.1
0.2
0.3
48.0
48.6
2.7
77.2
73.8
22.1
22.2
2.3
4.0
22.3
23.5
3.1
66.3
62.9
44.9
49.6
16.5
23.3
41.6
45.3
2.3
78.1
73.6
70.8
70.9
2.5
4.7
48.2
49.4
1.9
65.7
63.5
40.6
52.2
18.3
23.2
39.4
46.4
-0.1
77.0
73.7
37.3
33.5
7.8
8.7
33.1
33.7
0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
75.3
76.3
53.0
68.8
0.1
0.1
42.7
48.5
1.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
80.4
77.4
50.5
57.0
0.0
0.1
38.3
41.6
0.8
74.2
68.1
28.3
29.4
7.8
12.4
27.8
30.6
2.7
66.3
64.0
34.5
39.4
0.2
0.2
34.2
38.4
1.4
66.5
67.7
58.4
61.2
4.5
5.5
47.7
47.7
1.1
77.7
73.4
57.8
62.9
4.0
5.0
44.3
46.9
1.2
80.2
74.4
20.1
14.7
4.9
5.2
19.9
16.7
-1.1
58.2
50.3
32.3
29.2
1.6
2.3
36.1
36.9
1.2
89.8
87.2
84.6
79.7
16.1
27.2
49.3
48.3
2.8
81.1
75.3
65.6
58.8
35.0
38.7
45.9
45.7
-0.1
76.0
72.7
64.8
61.9
0.3
0.5
45.7
45.7
2.8
61.6
61.4
53.7
56.3
1.6
2.8
47.6
48.3
2.8
70.0
56.0
42.8
38.1
0.0
0.0
37.8
41.5
-0.7
76.2
70.6
46.5
50.1
0.6
0.7
38.4
42.4
0.2
71.2
68.9
23.2
24.9
3.2
4.1
24.7
27.4
0.9
72.6
72.2
26.3
34.3
21.4
33.3
27.7
33.3
3.1
74.4
72.1
50.3
44.4
1.8
2.4
41.8
39.4
1.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
76.8
73.4
64.1
66.9
8.4
16.6
47.1
49.5
3.9
64.4
63.0
50.8
46.9
23.2
20.2
48.5
47.3
-0.8
91.5
93.4
33.8
52.0
1.8
6.8
12.0
17.5
1.0
69.9
68.0
53.6
58.1
29.3
34.6
45.2
47.0
0.9
74.2
68.6
59.0
56.8
146.7
167.3
45.6
46.2
0.7
74.8
73.2
50.8
55.5
1.6
1.8
42.9
45.5
0.3
75.9
75.0
54.4
48.8
10.0
14.8
42.8
40.1
1.7
77.6
78.8
60.0
61.0
0.1
0.1
42.8
43.6
2.6
79.5
74.9
47.7
42.0
10.1
12.0
37.7
37.2
-0.6
81.4
82.2
72.2
72.7
41.9
57.3
48.3
47.9
1.2
71.0
65.6
59.7
55.6
0.1
0.1
48.1
49.1
-0.6
68.6
70.1
12.5
18.2
0.6
1.3
15.1
20.3
4.3
71.5
70.6
20.4
6.0
4.1
6.8
22.2
7.9
2.9
85.1
78.8
73.6
70.4
4.4
7.4
47.2
48.4
3.3
87.4
88.9
72.1
78.1
5.5
7.0
47.2
50.9
1.6
78.6
74.3
50.9
47.3
2,761.8
3,468.1
39.5
38.9
1.1
82.1
76.2
65.0
58.8
1,117.4
1,270.3
43.9
43.3
0.5
67.5
66.5
48.6
50.6
396.9
438.4
44.2
45.3
0.4
79.4
76.7
47.2
52.5
221.9
314.7
38.5
42.0
1.6
74.2
73.2
18.7
19.8
94.0
152.4
19.5
19.9
1.9
74.0
68.8
59.0
57.2
162.9
188.0
45.6
46.3
0.7
83.3
77.1
29.6
23.6
510.8
675.4
25.0
22.4
1.2
76.4
73.1
63.0
61.3
257.8
428.8
46.0
46.2
2.8
80.3
76.2
60.1
57.7
155.0
259.9
43.8
43.8
2.8
80.7
75.6
38.3
33.6
819.0
1,112.8
31.6
30.2
1.3
80.4
75.5
59.4
54.8
1,249.6
1,466.8
42.7
42.2
0.7
70.9
68.5
50.8
53.5
538.2
628.6
42.9
44.3
0.8